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      Last Updated: Wednesday, 02 June 2021, 14:58 GMT

      UNHCR Protection Manual

      The Protection Manual is UNHCR's repository of protection policy and guidance. The Protection Manual is updated whenever a new protection policy or guidance document is published, and can thus be relied upon to represent the latest UNHCR protection policy / guidance. The Protection Manual is organized by theme/subject. Under each heading, the documents are arranged in reverse chronological order and are accessible through a hyperlink. Documents from external sources are generally not included (unless they provide guidance on protection-related topics that also applies to or has specifically been endorsed by UNHCR, such as interagency guidance). At the end of each subject heading, relevant related sources are listed, containing older guidance and documents which serve as background reading.


      A. International Protection

      A.1. Refugee law instruments TOC

      A.1.1. International instruments TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      A.1.2. Regional instruments – Africa TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 12: Claims for refugee status related to situations of armed conflict and violence under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees and the regional refugee definitions, 2 December 2016, HCR/GIP/16/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/583595ff4.html
      • Marina Sharpe, The 1969 OAU Refugee Convention and the Protection of People fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in the Context of Individual Refugee Status Determination, January 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50fd3edb2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees in Africa. The Challenges of Protection and Solutions, December 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/427224a44.html [French]
      • Organization of African Unity, Addis Ababa Document on Refugees and Forced Population Displacements in Africa, 10 September 1994, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68f43c.html

      A.1.3. Regional instruments – North Africa and the Middle East TOC

      A.1.4. Regional instruments – Americas TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 12: Claims for refugee status related to situations of armed conflict and violence under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees and the regional refugee definitions, 2 December 2016, HCR/GIP/16/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/583595ff4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on the interpretation of the extended refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration; roundtable 15 and 16 October 2013, Montevideo, Uruguay, 7 July 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/53c52e7d4.html
      • Michael Reed-Hurtado, The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees and the Protection of People Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in Latin America, June 2013, PPLA/2013/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51c801934.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Hector Gros Espiell, Sonia Picado, and Leo Valladares Lanza, Principles and Criteria for the Protection of and Assistance to Central American Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons in Latin America, January 1990, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4370ca8b4.html [Prepared by the Group of Experts for the International Conference on Central American Refugees in 1989. English version first published in the International Journal of Refugee Law, Vol. 2 (1), 1990; reproduced by UNHCR with the permission of Oxford University Press]

      A.1.5. Regional instruments – Asia TOC

      A.1.6. Regional instruments – Europe, Council of Europe TOC

      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2005) 6 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Exclusion From Refugee Status in the Context of Article 1 F of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees of 28 July 1951, 23 March 2005, Rec(2005)6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4278d27c4.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2004) 9 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Concept of "Membership of a Particular Social Group" (MPSG) in the Context of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 30 June 2004, Rec(2004)9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4278d1524.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2003) 5 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Measures of Detention of Asylum Seekers, 16 April 2003, Rec(2003)5, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f8d65e54.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2001) 18 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Subsidiary Protection, 27 November 2001, Rec(2001)18, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3dde4c184.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2000) 9 on Temporary Protection (and Explanatory Memorandum), 3 May 2000, Rec(2000)9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3b14.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (99) 23 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Family Reunion for Refugees and Other Persons in Need of International Protection, 15 December 1999, Rec(99)23, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b39110.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (99) 12 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Return of Rejected Asylum-Seekers (and Explanatory Memorandum), 18 May 1999, Rec(99)12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3b56.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (98) 15 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Training of Officials Who First Come into Contact with Asylum-Seekers, in Particular at Border Points, 15 December 1998, Rec(98)15, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b39d10.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (98) 13 on the Right of Rejected Asylum Seekers to an Effective Remedy Against Decisions on Expulsion in the Context of Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, 18 September 1998, Rec(98)13, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38e13.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (97) 22 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States containing Guidelines on the Application of the Safe Third Country Concept, 25 November 1997, Rec(97)22, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b39f10.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (94) 5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on guidelines to inspire practices of the member States of the Council of Europe concerning the arrival of asylum-seekers at European airports, 21 June 1994, Rec(94)5, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48abd56d0.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation N° R (84) 1 on the Protection of Persons Satisfying the Criteria in the Geneva Convention Who Are Not Formally Recognised as Refugees, 25 January 1984, Rec(84)1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3816c.html
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Resolution (67) 14 : Asylum to Persons in Danger of Persecution, 29 June 1967, 14 (1967), http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38168.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly, Recommendation 293 (1961) on the Right of Asylum, 26 September 1961, 293 (1961), http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3671c.html [French]
      • Council of Europe, European Agreement on Transfer of Responsibility for Refugees, 16 October 1980, ETS 107, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b37620.html [French]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Declaration on Territorial Asylum, 18 November 1977, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3611c.html
      • Council of Europe, European Convention on Social Security, 14 December 1972, ETS 78, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b367c.html [French]
      • Council of Europe, European Agreement on the Abolition of Visas for Refugees, 3 September 1960, ETS 031, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38918.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on the return of asylum-seekers and refugees from Greece to Turkey as part of the EU-Turkey Cooperation in Tackling the Migration Crisis under the safe third country and first country of asylum concept, 23 March 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56f3ee3f4.html

      A.1.7. Regional instruments – Europe, European Union TOC

      • European Union, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, 26 October 2012, 2012/C 326/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3b70.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), 29 June 2013, OJ L. 180/96-180/116; 29.6.2013, 2013/33/EU, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51d29db54.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection (recast), 29 June 2013, OJ L. 180/60-180/95; 29.6.2013, 2013/32/EU, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51d29b224.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person (recast), 29 June 2013, OJ L. 180/31-180/59; 29.6.2013, (EU)No 604/2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51d298f04.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Regulation (EU) No 603/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the establishment of 'Eurodac' for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of Regulation (EU) No 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person and on requests for the comparison with Eurodac data by Member States' law enforcement authorities and Europol for law enforcement purposes, and amending Regulation (EU) No 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (recast), 29 June 2013, OJ L. 180/1-180/30; 29.6.2013, (EU)2003/86, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51d296724.html [French]
      • European Union, Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 26 October 2012, OJ L. 251/12-251/18; 3.10.2003, 2003/86/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52303e8d4.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted (recast), 20 December 2011, OJ L 337; December 2011, pp 9-26, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f197df02.html [French]
      • European Union, Regulation No 439/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 establishing a European Asylum Support Office, 19 May 2010, OJ L.132/11-132/28; 29.5.2010, (EU)No 439/2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c075a202.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals, 16 December 2008, OJ L. 348/98-348/107; 16.12.2008, 2008/115/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/496c641098.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2005/85/EC of 1 December 2005 on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status, 2 January 2006, OJ L 326/13-326/24; 13.12.2005, 2005/85/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4394203c4.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons Who Otherwise Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted, 30 September 2004, OJ L. 304/12-304/23; 30.9.2004, 2004/83/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4157e75e4.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003 concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents, 23 January 2004, OJ L. 16-44; 23. 1. 2004, 2003/109/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4156e6bd4.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/86/EC of 22 September 2003 on the Right to Family Reunification, 3 October 2003, OJ L. 251/12-251/18; 3.10.2003, 2003/86/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f8bb4a10.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Regulation (EC) No 343/2003 of 18 February 2003 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national, 18 February 2003, OJ L. 50/1-50/10; 25.2.2003, (EC)No 343/2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3e5cf1c24.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2003/9/EC of 27 January 2003 Laying Down Minimum Standards for the Reception of Asylum Seekers in Member States, 6 February 2003, OJ L. 31/18-31/25; 6.2.2003, 2003/9/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ddcfda14.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx of Displaced Persons and on Measures Promoting a Balance of Efforts Between Member States in Receiving such Persons and Bearing the Consequences Thereof, 7 August 2001, OJ L.212/12-212/23; 7.8.2001, 2001/55/EC, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ddcee2e4.html [French]
      • European Union: Council of the European Union, Council Regulation (EC) No 2725/2000 of 11 December 2000 Concerning the Establishment of 'Eurodac' for the Comparison of Fingerprints for the Effective Application of the Dublin Convention, 11 December 2000, OJ L 316; 15 December 2000, pp.1-10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f4e40434.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      A.2. UNHCR mandate and supervisory responsibility TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Key legal considerations on the standards of treatment of refugees recognized under the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 19 December 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a391d4f4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, I. A. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: Case for the Intervener, 27 October 2013, UKSC2012/0157, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52a098e34.html – concerning UNHCR's mandate to determine a person's refugee status, the weight States should afford to UNHCR's refugee recognitions, and the cogent reasons for disregarding UNHCR's recognition.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, In the Court of Final Appeal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Civil Appeals NOS. 18, 19 & 20 of 2011 between C, KMF, BF (Applicants) and Director of Immigration, Secretary for Security (Respondents) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener) – Intervener's Case, 31 January 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/510a74ce2.html – concerning the principle of non-refoulement of refugees as a norm of customary international law and the duty of States to independently inquire whether a person is to be protected from refoulement.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the right to asylum, UNHCR's supervisory responsibility and the duty of States to cooperate with UNHCR in the exercise of its supervisory responsibility. Issued in the context of a reference for a preliminary ruling addressed to Court of Justice of the European Union by the Administrative Court of Sofia lodged on 18 October 2011 – Zuheyr Freyeh Halaf v. the Bulgarian State Agency for Refugees, August 2012, C-528/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5017fc202.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, MM (Iran) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Written Submission on Behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 3 August 2010, C5/2009/2479, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c6aa7db2.html – concerning UNHCR's mandate and the weight States should afford to UNHCR's refugee recognitions.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Agenda for Protection, October 2003, Third edition, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4714a1bf2.html [French]
      • Walter K?lin, Supervising the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and Beyond, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33c00.html [UNHCR-commissioned background paper, republished as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]
      • Volker Türk UNHCR's supervisory responsibility, October 2002, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fe405ef2.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Designing Protection Strategies and Measuring Progress: Checklist for UNHCR Staff, 26 July 2002, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3dede7c21.html
      • UN General Assembly, Note on International Protection (submitted by the High Commissioner), 25 August 1992, A/AC.96/799, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68bfe18.html [French] [See in particular section B, "UNHCR's Mandate and Competence"]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Report of the Working Group on Solutions and Protection to the Forty-second Session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, 12 August 1991, EC/SCP/64, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68ccb14.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on the Extraterritorial Effect of the Determination of Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 24 August 1978, EC/SCP/9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cccc.html

      A.3. Executive Committee Conclusions TOC

      A.4. General Assembly and Economic and Social Council Resolutions TOC

      A.5. UNHCR and Humanitarian Reform TOC

      B. Refugee Protection

      B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) TOC

      B.1.1. Inclusion – general TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Comments on the European Commission Proposal for a Qualification Regulation – COM (2016) 466, February 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a7835f24.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 2019, HCR/1P/4/ENG/REV. 4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5cb474b27.html [French (Revision 3)]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR comments on the European Commission's proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection and the content of the protection granted (COM(2009)551, 21 October 2009), 29 July 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c503db52.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Queen on the Application of Al Rawi and Others (Appellants) and (1) The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and (2) The Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondents) and The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener). Written Submissions on Behalf of the Intervener (UNHCR), 12 July 2006, C1/2006/1064, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45c350974.html – submission before the UK House of Lords concerning the right and responsibility of one country which has recognized someone as a refugee to intervene with another on his or her behalf; scope and extent of the obligations of States Parties to the 1951 Convention / 1967 Protocol between themselves; Articles 16 and 25 of the 1951 Convention; extraterritorial effect of decision on refugee status; diplomatic protection; Convention Travel Documents.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Interpreting Article 1 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 2001, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b20a3914.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, MM (Somalia) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: UNHCR Submissions, 18 January 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56a23f2b4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Annotated Comments on the EC Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons Who Otherwise Need International Protection and the Content of the Protection Granted (OJ L 304/12 of 30.9.2004), 28 January 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4200d8354.html

      B.1.2. Persecution TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, MM (Somalia) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: UNHCR Submissions, 18 January 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56a23f2b4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Secretary of State for the Home Department (Appellant) v. RT (Zimbabwe), SM (Zimbabwe) and AM (Zimbabwe) (Respondents) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener) – Case for the Intervener, 25 May 2012, 2011/0011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fc369022.html – concerning the avoidance of persecution by professing political allegiance to the persecuting State.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR statement on religious persecution and the interpretation of Article 9(1) of the EU Qualification Directive , 17 June 2011, C-71/11 & C-99/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dfb7a082.html – concerning inter alia the meaning of persecution (paras. 4.1 – 4.2).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Elias Zacarias: Brief Amicus Curiae of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Support of Respondent, 14 August 1991, No. 90-1342, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03d09c2.html – concerning whether forced recruitment or punishment for refusal to join a guerilla group can amount to persecution on account of political opinion, in the absence of proof regarding the specific intent of the guerillas.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Cardoza-Fonseca: Brief of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondent, 14 July 1986, No. 85-782, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03c5818.html – concerning the meaning of "well-founded fear of persecution"; standard of proof requires applicant to show that the fear is based on objective facts which make the fear reasonable under the circumstances, but not necessarily that he or she is more likely than not to become a victim of persecution.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Crimes of Lèse Majesté and Similar Criminal Offences, September 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/55ee8a254.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • Jill Schnoebelen, Witchcraft allegations, refugee protection and human rights: a review of the evidence, January 2009, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a54bbefd.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]

      B.1.3. Agents of Persecution TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Statement relating to Appeal Case UM 12033-09 before the Stockholm Migration Court (Availability of State protection in Iraq), January 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b4b3d762.html – concerning the availability and effectiveness of State protection when the agents of persecution are non-State actors.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Agents of Persecution – UNHCR Position, 14 March 1995, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31da3.html

      B.1.4. Outside country of origin TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, European Roma Rights Centre and Others v. Immigration Officer at Prague Airport, Secretary of State for the Home Department, and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener), 28 September 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/41c1aa654.html – submission before the UK House of Lords concerning good faith, non-refoulement/non-rejection at the frontier and non-discrimination as principles of customary international law; pre-entry clearance procedures.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The European Roma Rights Center and Others (Appellants) v. (1) The Immigration Officer at Prague Airport, (2) The Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondents), and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener). Skeleton Argument on Behalf of the Intervener (UNHCR), 30 January 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3e5ba6d45.html – submission before the Court of Appeal concerning the lawfulness of pre-entry clearance procedures and extra-territorial interception of persons; principle of good faith.

      B.1.5. Persons fleeing armed conflict and other situations of violence TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on refugee protection for people fleeing conflict and famine affected countries , 5 April 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5906e0824.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 12: Claims for refugee status related to situations of armed conflict and violence under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees and the regional refugee definitions, 2 December 2016, HCR/GIP/16/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/583595ff4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on the interpretation of the extended refugee definition in the 1984 Cartagena Declaration; roundtable 15 and 16 October 2013, Montevideo, Uruguay, 7 July 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/53c52e7d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on International Protection of Persons Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence; Roundtable 13 and 14 September 2012, Cape Town, South Africa, 20 December 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50d32e5e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Victims of Organized Gangs, 31 March 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bb21fa02.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • Sanjula Weerasinghe, In Harm's Way: International Protection in the Context of Nexus Dynamics Between Conflict or Violence and Disaster or Climate Change , December 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5c2f54fe4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note sur l'interprétation de la notion de 'conflit armé interne' visée par l'article 15, c) de la Directive Qualification dans le cadre de l'affaire C-285/12 pendante à la Cour de justice de l'Union européenne, 19 September 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/506035c52.html
      • Vanessa Holzer, The 1951 Refugee Convention and the Protection of People Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence, September 2012, PPLA/2012/05, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50474f062.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]

      B.1.6. Religious-based refugee claims TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR statement on religious persecution and the interpretation of Article 9(1) of the EU Qualification Directive, 17 June 2011, C-71/11 & C-99/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dfb7a082.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 6: Religion-Based Refugee Claims under Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 28 April 2004, HCR/GIP/04/06, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4090f9794.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • Karen Musalo, Claims for Protection Based on Religion or Belief: Analysis and Proposed Conclusions, December 2002, PPLA/2002/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f4de7f0a.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Gunn, T. Jeremy, The Complexity of Religion in Determining Refugee Status, 24 October 2002, http://www.refworld.org/docid/521c711c4.html [Background paper prepared for an expert roundtable on religion organized as part of the follow-up to the Agenda for Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees / Church World Service, Summary Conclusions on Religion-Based Refugee Claims (Baltimore Expert Roundtable, 30-31 October 2002), February 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3fe9975d7.html

      B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 7: The Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees to Victims of Trafficking and Persons At Risk of Being Trafficked, 7 April 2006, HCR/GIP/06/07, http://www.refworld.org/docid/443679fa4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 2: "Membership of a Particular Social Group" Within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 7 May 2002, HCR/GIP/02/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d36f23f4.html [ French (Rev.1)]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Conventionnelle et protection subsidiaire, complémentarité ou concurrence? L'exemple de la notion d'appartenance à un certain groupe social, 29 October 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/512e09b22.html [English translation] [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Matter of Valdiviezo-Galdamez, Amicus Curiae Brief In Support Of Respondent, 10 August 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/503653562.html – concerning the "social visibility" and "particularity" requirements for the ground of membership to a particular social group for refugee protection.
      • Michelle Foster, The 'Ground with the Least Clarity': A Comparative Study of Jurisprudential Developments relating to 'Membership of a Particular Social Group', August 2012, PPLA/2012/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f7d94722.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol to Victims of Trafficking in France, 12 June 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fd84b012.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Rocio Brenda Henriquez-Rivas, Petitioner v. Eric H. Holder, Jr, Attorney General, Respondent. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees' Amicus Curiae Brief in Support of Petitioner, 23 February 2012, No. 09-71571 (A098-660-718), http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c97c52.html – concerning the membership of a particular social group; "protected characteristics" and "social perception" approaches.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims Relating to Victims of Organized Gangs, 31 March 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bb21fa02.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, In the Matter of Michelle Thomas et al. (in Removal Proceedings). Brief of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as Amicus Curiae, 25 January 2007, A-75-597-033/-034/-035/-036, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45c34c244.html – concerning family as a particular social group; nexus between persecution feared and Convention ground.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Position on Claims for Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Based on a Fear of Persecution due to an Individual's Membership of a Family or Clan Engaged in a Blood Feud, 17 March 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/44201a574.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on Refugee Claims Based on Coercive Family Planning Laws or Policies, August 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4301a9184.html [French]

      B.1.8. Gender-related persecution TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 1: Gender-Related Persecution Within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 7 May 2002, HCR/GIP/02/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d36f1c64.html [French (Rev.1)]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General recommendation No. 32 on the gender-related dimensions of refugee status, asylum, nationality and statelessness of women, 5 November 2014, CEDAW/C/GC/32, www.refworld.org/docid/54620fb54.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Too Much Pain: Female Genital Mutilation & Asylum in the European Union – A Statistical Overview, February 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/512c72ec2.html [French]
      • Valerie Oosterveld, Women and Girls Fleeing Conflict: Gender and the Interpretation and Application of the 1951 Refugee Convention, September 2012, PPLA/2012/06, http://www.refworld.org/docid/504dcb172.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Alice Edwards, Distinction, Discretion, Discrimination: The new frontiers of gender-related claims to asylum, 19 June 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ffd430c2.html
      • Alice Edwards, Displacement, Statelessness and Questions of Gender Equality under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, August 2009, PPLAS/2009/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a8aa8bd2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims relating to Female Genital Mutilation, May 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a0c28492.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Zainab Esther Fornah (appellant) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department (respondent), and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (intervener), Case for the intervener, 14 June 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45631a0f4.html – concerning female genital mutilation; gender-related persecution; particular social group.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on Refugee Claims Based on Coercive Family Planning Laws or Policies, August 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4301a9184.html [French]

      B.1.9. Victims of trafficking TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 7: The Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees to Victims of Trafficking and Persons At Risk of Being Trafficked, 7 April 2006, HCR/GIP/06/07, http://www.refworld.org/docid/443679fa4.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General recommendation No. 38 on trafficking in women and girls in the context of global migration, 20 November 2020, CEDAW/C/GC/38, /docid/6006fa354.html

      B.1.10. Child asylum claims TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 8: Child Asylum Claims under Articles 1(A)2 and 1(F) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 22 December 2009, HCR/GIP/09/08, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b2f4f6d2.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW), Joint general comment No. 4 (2017) of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and No. 23 (2017) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on State obligations regarding the human rights of children in the context of international migration in countries of origin, transit, destination and return, 16 November 2017, CMW/C/GC/4-CRC/C/GC/23, /docid/5a1293a24.html
      • UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW), Joint general comment No. 3 (2017) of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and No. 22 (2017) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on the general principles regarding the human rights of children in the context of international migration, 16 November 2017, CMW/C/GC/3-CRC/C/GC/22, /docid/5a1293a24.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR observations on the use of age assessments in the identification of separated or unaccompanied children seeking asylum, 1 June 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/55759d2d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the Association for the Prevention of Torture and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , 30 October 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/563892104.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Options Paper 1: Options for governments on care arrangements and alternatives to detention for children and families, 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5523e8d94.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Options Paper 2: Options for governments on open reception and alternatives to detention, 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5523e9024.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Heart of the Matter - Assessing Credibility when Children Apply for Asylum in the European Union , December 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/55014f434.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Too Much Pain: Female Genital Mutilation & Asylum in the European Union – A Statistical Overview, February 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/512c72ec2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of Defence for Children International (DCI) v. Belgium, 13 July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/500419f32.html – concerning adequate reception conditions and the social rights of asylum-seeking and refugee children.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Submissions to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the framework of request for an Advisory Opinion on Migrant Children presented by MERCOSUR, 17 February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c959f2.html – concerning the right to asylum; the difference between "asilo" and "refugio"; general principles for the protection of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the context of RSD, including with regard to early identification of needs, child-sensitive asylum procedures, reception standards, and detention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Issasi v. Rosenzweig – Memorandum of Fact and Law of the Intervener, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 21 March 2011, Court File No. C52822, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d889b392.html – concerning the interaction between the 1951 Convention and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; scope and the content of the principle of non-refoulement and the prohibition of expulsion.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on Refugee Claims relating to Female Genital Mutilation, May 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a0c28492.html [French]
      • UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General Comment No. 6 (2005), Treatment of Unaccompanied and Separated Children outside their Country of Origin, 1 September 2005, CRC/GC/2005/6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42dd174b4.html [French]

      B.1.11. Sexual orientation and gender identity TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 9: Claims to Refugee Status based on Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 23 October 2012, HCR/GIP/12/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50348afc2.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations in the cases of Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel v. X, Y and Z (C-199/12, C-200/12, C-201/12) regarding claims for refugee status based on sexual orientation and the interpretation of Articles 9 and 10 of the EU Qualification Directive, 28 September 2012, C-199/12, C-200/12, C-201/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5065c0bd2.html – concerning whether asylum-seekers can be expected to conceal their sexual orientation and/or gender-identity to avoid persecution and whether criminalization of consensual same-sex relations between adults can constitute an act of persecution (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/516d6b7a4.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Report, Informal Meeting of Experts on Refugee Claims relating to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity, 10 September 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fa910f92.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Case for the first intervener (the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), 19 April 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bd1abbc2.html – UNHCR's statement concerning whether asylum claims based on sexual orientation amount to well-founded fear of persecution according to the 1951 Convention; if and to what extent applicants can be expected to avoid persecution by hiding their identities.
      • International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), Yogyakarta Principles – Principles on the application of international human rights law in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity, March 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48244e602.html

      B.1.12. Claims related to military service – Conscientious objection / Draft evasion / Desertion TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 10: Claims to Refugee Status related to Military Service within the context of Article 1A (2) of the 1951 Convention and/or the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 3 December 2013, HCR/GIP/13/10/Corr. 1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/529ee33b4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 8: Child Asylum Claims under Articles 1(A)2 and 1(F) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 22 December 2009, HCR/GIP/09/08, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b2f4f6d2.html para 19-23 [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Conscientious objection to military service, January 2012, HR/PUB/12/1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51777e0d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Eritrea, April 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49de06122.html [See in particular section 2(a)]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Belarus: "Dedovshchina" (hazing or bullying), 10 August 2005, ZZ 001/06/EN, http://www.refworld.org/docid/447ffba04.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 5: Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 4 September 2003, HCR/GIP/03/05, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f5857684.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Yasin Sepet and Erdem Bulbul (Appellants) v. the Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent), and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener), 8 January 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3e5ba7f02.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Elias Zacarias: Brief Amicus Curiae of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Support of Respondent, 14 August 1991, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03d09c2.html – concerning whether forced recruitment or punishment for refusal to join a guerilla group can amount to persecution on account of political opinion, in the absence of proof regarding the specific intent of the guerillas.

      B.1.13. Internal flight / relocation alternative TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR intervention before the House of Lords in the case of Secretary of State for the Home Department (Appellant) v. AH (Sudan), IG (Sudan) and NM (Sudan) (Respondents), 4 October 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47162e8c2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Secretary of State for the Home Department (Appellant) v. AH (Sudan), IG (Sudan) and NM (Sudan) (Respondents) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener). Case for the Intervener, 4 October 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47162e8c2.html – concerning IFA; the "reasonableness analysis"; interpretation of "relatively normal life" and "without undue hardship" concepts by reference to the personal circumstances of the individual concerned.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Hamid, Gaafar and Mohammed (Appellants) v. the Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent), and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener). Case for the Intervener, December 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e9d8714.html – concerning relevance and reasonableness of internal flight or relocation alternative; holistic approach to refugee definition; burden and standard of proof.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 4: "Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative" Within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, 23 July 2003, HCR/GIP/03/04, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f2791a44.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      B.1.14. Safe countries of origin / Safe third countries / Safe first country of asylum / 'Secondary' or 'onward' movement TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on the "Externalization" of International Protection, May 2021, /docid/60b115604.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Annex to UNHCR Note on the "Externalization" of International Protection: Policies and practices related to the externalization of international protection, May 2021, /docid/60b115b64.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance on responding to irregular onward movement of refugees and asylum-seekers, September 2019, /docid/5d8a255d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal Considerations regarding access to protection and a connection between the refugee and the third country in the context of return or transfer to safe third countries , April 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5acb33ad4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on the return of asylum-seekers and refugees from Greece to Turkey as part of the EU-Turkey Cooperation in Tackling the Migration Crisis under the safe third country and first country of asylum concept , 23 March 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56f3ee3f4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on bilateral and/or multilateral transfer arrangements of asylum-seekers, May 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51af82794.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugee Protection and Mixed Migration: The 10-Point Plan in action, February 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9430ea2.html - Chapter 8
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Convention Plus Core Group on Addressing Irregular Secondary Movements of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers: Joint Statement by the Co-Chairs, 8 November 2005, FORUM/2005/7, http://www.refworld.org/docid/46b6ee6a2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Convention Plus: Issues Paper Submitted by UNHCR on Addressing Irregular Secondary Movements of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers, 11 March 2004, FORUM/CG/SM/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/471de35b2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Informal Record: Open Meeting of States and Interested Parties on Secondary, Irregular Movements of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers (Geneva, 16 December 2003), 21 December 2003, FORUM/CG/SM/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/471de3fc2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on the Concept of "Effective Protection" in the Context of Secondary Movements of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers (Lisbon Expert Roundtable, 9-10 December 2002), February 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3fe9981e4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Asylum Processes (Fair and Efficient Asylum Procedures), 31 May 2001, EC/GC/01/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b36f2fca.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Regional Meetings: Conclusions (Regional Meeting in Budapest, 6-7 June 2001), 15 June 2001, EC/GC/01/14, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b36f29b1.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Considerations on the "Safe Third Country" Concept, July 1996, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3268.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, R on the application of EM (Eritrea) and others v. The Secretary of State for the Home Department: Case for the Intervener, 3 October 2013, UKSC 2012/2072-2075, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5252611e4.html – concerning returns to EU Member States on the Dublin Regulation and a real risk of inhuman or degrading treatment.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Regional Cooperative Approach to Address Refugees, Asylum Seekers and Irregular Movement, November 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e92d7c32.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, N.S. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department in United Kingdom; M.E. and Others v. Refugee Application Commissioner and the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform in Ireland – Written Observations of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1 February 2011, C-411/10 and C-493/10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d493e822.html ?– concerning Member States' responsibility not to transfer an asylum applicant where the receiving State cannot guarantee the fundamental rights of the asylum-seeker.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, June 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c19e7512.html ?– concerning transfers under the Dublin II Regulation and effective remedies available against such transfers; burden of proof and the presumption of safety of EU Member States / "Dublin" countries; the material situation of asylum-seekers in Greece, including reception conditions; access to Greece's asylum procedures and the risk of (indirect) refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c7fbf052.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR comments on the European Commission's Proposal for a recast of the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third country national or a stateless person ("Dublin II") (COM(2008) 820, 3 December 2008) and the European Commission's Proposal for a recast of the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the establishment of 'Eurodac' for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of [the Dublin II Regulation] (COM(2008) 825, 3 December 2008), 18 March 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49c0ca922.html
      • Stephen H. Legomsky, Secondary Refugee Movements and the Return of Asylum Seekers to Third Countries: The Meaning of Effective Protection, February 2003, PPLA/2003/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f4de85d4.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations on the European Commission's Proposal for a Council Regulation establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national (COM (2001) 447 final), 1 February 2002, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3cbc27e34.html

      B.1.15. Family Unity and Derivative Refugee Status TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR RSD Procedural Standards Unit 5: Processing Claims Based on the Right to Family Unity, 26 August 2020, /docid/5e87075e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Amicus curiae of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case X and The Minister For Justice and Equality, Ireland and the Attorney General, 11 December 2019, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4eef5a1b2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 2019, HCR/1P/4/ENG/REV. 4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5cb474b27.html Chapter VI [French (Revision 3)]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Discussion paper prepared for the Expert Roundtable on the Right to Family Life and Family Unity in the Context of Family Reunification, 4 December 2017, /docid/5a902b084.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on Suspension of "General Cessation" Declarations in respect of particular persons or groups based on acquired rights to family unity, December 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4eef5a1b2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on DNA Testing to Establish Family Relationships in the Refugee Context, June 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4eef5a1b2.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Summary Conclusions on the Right to Family Life and Family Unity in the Context of Family Reunification of Refugees and Other Persons In Need Of International Protection, 4 December 2017, Expert Roundtable, /docid/5b18f5774.html
      • Frances Nicholson, The "Essential Right" to Family Unity of Refugees and Others in Need of International Protection in the Context of Family Reunification, January 2018, /docid/5a902a9b4.html
      • Frances Nicholson, The Right to Family Life and Family Unity of Refugees and Others in Need of International Protection and the Family Definition Applied, January 2018, /docid/5a9029f04.html

      B.1.16. Claims in the context of climate change and disasters TOC

      • UNHCR, Legal considerations regarding claims for international protection made in the context of the adverse effects of climate change and disasters, October 2020, /docid/5f75f2734.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on refugee protection for people fleeing conflict and famine affected countries, 5 April 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5906e0824.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • Sanjula Weerasinghe, Refugee Law in a Time of Climate Change, Disaster and Conflict, January 2020, /docid/5ff43e894.html
      • Sanjula Weerasinghe, In Harm's Way: International Protection in the Context of Nexus Dynamics Between Conflict or Violence and Disaster or Climate Change, December 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5c2f54fe4.html
      • David Cantor, Cross Border Displacement, Climate Change and Disasters: Latin America and the Caribbean, July 2018, https://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/5d4a7b737/cross-border-displacement-climate-change-disasters-latin-america-caribbean.html

      B.1.17. Political Opinion TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, MSM (Somalia) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: Submissions on behalf of UNHCR, 5 November 2014, AA/00387/2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/545cc43f4.html - concerning the requirement to change profession to avoid persecution for reasons of (imputed) political opinion.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Secretary of State for the Home Department (Appellant) v. RT (Zimbabwe), SM (Zimbabwe) and AM (Zimbabwe) (Respondents) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener) – Case for the Intervener, 25 May 2012, 2011/0011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fc369022.html – concerning the avoidance of persecution by professing political allegiance to the persecuting State.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Elias Zacarias: Brief Amicus Curiae of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Support of Respondent, 14 August 1991, No. 90-1342, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03d09c2.html – concerning whether forced recruitment or punishment for refusal to join a guerilla group can amount to persecution on account of political opinion, in the absence of proof regarding the specific intent of the guerillas.

      B.2. Cessation (article 1C) TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      B.3. Article 1D – Palestinian refugees TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Guidelines on International Protection No. 13: Applicability of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugee to Palestinian Refugees, December 2017, HCR/GIP/16/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a1836804.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on UNHCR's Interpretation of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and Article 12(1)(a) of the EU Qualification Directive in the context of Palestinian refugees seeking international protection, May 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/518cb8c84.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations in the case C-364/11 El Kott and Others regarding the interpretation of Article 1D of the 1951 Convention and Article 12(1)(a) of the Qualification Directive, 27 October 2011, C-364/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4eaa95d92.html – concerning Article 1D, in particular the meaning of the terms "benefits of this Convention", "ipso facto", and "when such protection or assistance has ceased for any reason" (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fbd1e112.html).
      • United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), The United Nations and Palestinian Refugees, January 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48da0e692.html

      Related sources: TOC

      B.4. Exclusion TOC

      B.4.1. Article 1E TOC

      B.4.2. Article 1F TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Al-Sirri (FC) (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent) and DD (Afghanistan) (FC) (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent), 21 November 2012, [2012] UKSC 54, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50b89fd62.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, AH (Algeria) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: Case for the Intervener , 21 October 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5450a5254.html - concerning the application of Article 1F(b) and the issue of 'inchoate crimes' and expiation.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Luis Alberto Hernandez Febles v. Minister of Citizenship and Immigration: Factum of the Intervener (UNHCR) , 11 March 2014, SCC Court File No. 35215, http://www.refworld.org/docid/532019774.html - concerning applying Article 1F(b) in line with its purposes and the service of a sentence and other factors relevant to expiation.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ezokola (Appellant) and Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (Respondent), Factum for the Intervener, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 15 December 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50ebcf272.html – concerning the criteria for determining individual responsibility in the context of the application of Article 1F of the 1951 Convention, in particular in cases involving questions of complicity.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 8: Child Asylum Claims under Articles 1(A)2 and 1(F) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 22 December 2009, HCR/GIP/09/08, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b2f4f6d2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on Article 1F of the 1951 Convention, July 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a5de2992.html – concerning the scope of Article 1F(b) and (c); exclusion in cases involving membership of a terrorist organization; proportionality.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, YS (Egypt) (Appellant) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent). Case for the Intervener (UNHCR), 19 November 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4940d04e2.html – concerning the scope of Article 1F(c); application of Article 1F(c) to acts of "terrorism".
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Guidelines on the Application in Mass Influx Situations of the Exclusion Clauses of Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 7 February 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43f48c0b4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on the Impact of Security Council Resolution 1624 (2005) on the Application of Exclusion under Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 9 December 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/440ff6944.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion From the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) Regarding the International Standards for Exclusion From Refugee Status as Applied to Child Soldiers, 12 September 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/440eda694.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 5: Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 4 September 2003, HCR/GIP/03/05, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f5857684.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Background Note on the Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 4 September 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f5857d24.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Expert Meeting on Complementarities between International Refugee Law, International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law: Summary Conclusions, July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e1729d52.html
      • Joseph Rikhof, Exclusion at a Crossroads: The Interplay between International Criminal Law and Refugee Law in the Area of Extended Liability, June 2011, PPLA/2011/06, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e31582f2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, JS (Sri Lanka) v. Secretary of State for Home Department – UNHCR letter to the parties, 8 December 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b6a94c92.html – concerning the interpretation and application of Article 1F(a) of the 1951 Convention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Daniel Girmai Negusie, Petitioner, v. Michael Mukasey, United States Attorney General, Respondent. Brief Amicus Curiae of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Support of Petitioner, 23 June 2008, No. 07-499, http://www.refworld.org/docid/486230652.html – concerning the interpretation of the Article 1F(a) exclusion clause; "persecutor of others" bar to asylum; individual responsibility requirement; defenses to criminal liability; duress.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Tiuang Ling Thang v. Alberto Gonzales, Attorney General of the United States. Brief of the UNHCR as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioner, 21 February 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4891c94a2.html – concerning determination of individual responsibility; application of Article 1F and Article 33(2) in the US; material support bar.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions: Exclusion From Refugee Status, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33bad.html [Summary conclusions published as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]
      • Geoff Gilbert, Current Issues in the Application of the Exclusion Clauses, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33ba0.html [UNHCR-commissioned background paper, republished as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]

      B.5. Cancellation and revocation of refugee status TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • Sibylle Kapferer, Cancellation of Refugee Status, March 2003, PPLA/2003/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f4de8a74.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]

      B.6. Regional Refugee Definitions and Complementary forms of protection TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Key legal considerations on the standards of treatment of refugees recognized under the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 19 December 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a391d4f4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Safe at Last? Law and Practice in Selected EU Member States with Respect to Asylum-Seekers Fleeing Indiscriminate Violence, 27 July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e2ee0022.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, MM (Iran) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Written Submission on Behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 3 August 2010, C5/2009/2479, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c6aa7db2.html – concerning UNHCR's "extended" mandate.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, QD (Iraq) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Submissions by UNHCR, 31 May 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a6464e72.html – concerning the object and purpose of Subsidiary Protection Status under the EC Qualification Directive of 29 April 2004; the context and object of Article 15(c) of the Qualification Directive; the meaning of "individual threat"; the meaning of "internal armed conflict"; the meaning of "indiscriminate violence"; the meaning of a real risk of a threat to life or person.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on Subsidiary Protection Under the EC Qualification Directive for People Threatened by Indiscriminate Violence, January 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/479df7472.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Providing International Protection Including Through Complementary Forms of Protection, 2 June 2005, EC/55/SC/CRP.16, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fdfb49d.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Complementary Forms of Protection, 4 September 2001, EC/GC/01/18, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3bfa84345.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Complementary Forms of Protection, April 2001, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b20a7014.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Complementary Forms of Protection: Their Nature and Relationship to the International Refugee Protection Regime, 9 June 2000, EC/50/SC/CRP.18, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fdfb491a.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection of Persons of Concern to UNHCR Who Fall Outside the 1951 Convention: A Discussion Note, 2 April 1992, EC/1992/SCP/CRP.5, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cc518.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • Michael Reed-Hurtado, The Cartagena Declaration on Refugees and the Protection of People Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in Latin America, June 2013, PPLA/2013/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51c801934.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Coping with Contemporary Conflicts: 'Conflict refugees' and the 1951 Convention protection regime, 23 April 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5178d7c44.html
      • Marina Sharpe, The 1969 OAU Refugee Convention and the Protection of People fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in the Context of Individual Refugee Status Determination, January 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50fd3edb2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on International Protection of Persons Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence; Roundtable 13 and 14 September 2012, Cape Town, South Africa, 20 December 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50d32e5e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Expert Meeting on Complementarities between International Refugee Law, International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law: Summary Conclusions, July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e1729d52.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, "ProtectionGapsinEurope?Persons fleeing the indiscriminate effects of generalized violence", 18 January 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d37d8402.html
      • Ruma Mandal, Protection Mechanisms Outside of the 1951 Convention ("Complementary Protection"), June 2005, PPLA/2005/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/435e198d4.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Jens Vedsted-Hansen, Complementary or subsidiary protection? Offering an appropriate status without undermining refugee protection, 5 February 2002, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ff550682.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Challenges to the 1951 Convention in its 50th Anniversary Year: Statement by Ms. Erika Feller, Director, Department of International Protection, UNHCR, at the Seminar on "International Protection within one single asylum procedure", Norrkoping, Sweden, 23-24 April 2001, 24 April 2001, http://www.refworld.org/docid/429d74282.html

      B.7. Country-related guidance TOC

      B.7.1. Country-of-origin information and guidance, standards and procedures TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, AMM and others v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Statement on behalf of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 6 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4edc7b7f2.html – concerning the mandate and process for drafting Eligibility Guidelines and the authority thereof.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Country of Origin Information: Towards Enhanced International Cooperation, February 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/403b2522a.html

      B.7.2. Eligibility guidelines TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of asylum-seekers from Afghanistan, August 2018, HCR/EG/AFG/18/02, /docid/5b8900109.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of asylum-seekers from Guatemala, January 2018, HCR/EG/GTM/18/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a5e03e96.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Members of Religious Minorities from Pakistan, January 2017, HCR/EG/PAK/17/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5857ed0e4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Honduras, 27 July 2016, HCR/EG/HND/16/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/579767434.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Afghanistan, 19 April 2016, HCR/EG/AFG/16/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/570f96564.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from El Salvador, 15 March 2016, HCR/EG/SLV/16/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56e706e94.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Colombia, September 2015, HCR/EG/COL/15/1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/560011fc4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Eritrea, 20 April 2011, HCR/EG/ERT/11/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dafe0ec2.html

      B.7.3. Protection considerations, non-return advisories and other country-specific guidance TOC

      B.7.4. 'Country-of-asylum' guidance TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, R on the application of EM (Eritrea) and others v. The Secretary of State for the Home Department: Case for the Intervener, 3 October 2013, UKSC 2012/2072-2075, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5252611e4.html

      B.7.5. Other 'country-related' guidance TOC

      B.8. Procedures TOC

      B.8.1. Procedural safeguards / Due process rights TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of Defence for Children International (DCI) v. Belgium, 13 July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/500419f32.html – concerning adequate reception conditions and the social rights of asylum-seeking and refugee children.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Submissions to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the framework of request for an Advisory Opinion on Migrant Children presented by MERCOSUR, 17 February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c959f2.html – concerning the right to asylum; the difference between "asilo" and "refugio"; general principles for the protection of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the context of RSD, including with regard to early identification of needs, child-sensitive asylum procedures, reception standards, and detention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR comments on the European Commission's Amended Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection status (Recast) COM (2011) 319 final, January 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f3281762.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 2019, HCR/1P/4/ENG/REV. 4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5cb474b27.html [French (Revision 3)]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations actualisées du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c. France, requête no. 9152/09, 31 March 2011, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9995d02.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also earlier intervention here, and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR comments on the European Commission's proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing international protection (COM(2009)554, 21 October 2009), August 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c63ebd32.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the right to an effective remedy in relation to accelerated asylum procedures, 21 May 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bf67fa12.html – concerning due process guarantees in the context of accelerated procedures and the right to an effective remedy.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Improving Asylum Procedures: Comparative Analysis and Recommendations for Law and Practice – Detailed Research on Key Asylum Procedures Directive Provisions, March 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c63e52d2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations écrites du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c/ France, requête no. 9152/09, September 2009, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4abb61992.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also updated observations here, and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations on the European Commission Communication on 'A More Efficient Common European Asylum System: The Single Procedure as the Next Step', 30 August 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4156eee84.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Asylum Processes (Fair and Efficient Asylum Procedures), 31 May 2001, EC/GC/01/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b36f2fca.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on Determination of Refugee Status under International Instruments, 24 August 1977, EC/SCP/5, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cc04.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Building In Quality: A Manual on Building a High Quality Asylum System, September 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e85b36d2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Self-Study Module 3: Interpreting in a Refugee Context, 1 January 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49b6314d2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement. Module 2: Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in Refugee Status Determination – Procedural Issues (Resource Package), October 2005, Module: 2, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e73b644.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement. Module 1: Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in Refugee Status Determination (Resource Package), October 2005, 1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e73af14.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary of UNHCR's Provisional Comments on the Proposal for a European Council Directive on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status (Council Document 14203/04, Asile 64, of 9 November 2004), 22 March 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4249292c4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Provisional Comments on the Proposal for a European Council Directive on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status (Council Document 14203/04, Asile 64 of 9 November 2004, 10 February 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42492b302.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on the Concept of "Effective Protection" in the Context of Secondary Movements of Refugees and Asylum-Seekers (Lisbon Expert Roundtable, 9-10 December 2002), February 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3fe9981e4.html

      B.8.2. Credibility assessment / Use of country of origin information / Use of expert advice and evidence / Burden and standard of proof TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Preliminary Legal Observations on the Seizure and Search of Electronic Devices of Asylum-Seekers , 4 August 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/59a5231b4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary of Deliberations on Credibility Assessment in Asylum Procedures, Expert Roundtable, 14-15 January 2015, Budapest, Hungary, 15 January 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/554c9aba4.html - Expert Roundtable on Credibility Assessment in Asylum Procedures in Budapest, Hungary on 14-15 January 2015, convened by UNHCR and organized with the Hungarian Helsinki Committee (HHC) as part of the "CREDO" projects.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Beyond Proof, Credibility Assessment in EU Asylum Systems: Full Report, May 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/519b1fb54.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, AMM and others v. Secretary of State for the Home Department – Statement on behalf of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 6 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4edc7b7f2.html – concerning the mandate and process for drafting Eligibility Guidelines and the authority thereof.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR's Comments on the Practice of Phallometry in the Czech Republic to Determine the Credibility of Asylum Claims based on Persecution due to Sexual Orientation, April 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4daeb07b2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Improving Asylum Procedures Comparative Analysis and Recommendations for Law and Practice: Key Findings and Recommendations on Credibility and Country of Origin Information, March 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e7c7d852.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Country of Origin Information: Towards Enhanced International Cooperation, February 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/403b2522a.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on Burden and Standard of Proof in Refugee Claims, 16 December 1998, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3338.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Cardoza-Fonseca: Brief of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as Amicus Curiae in Support of Responden, 14 July 1986, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03c5818.html – concerning the meaning of "well-founded fear of persecution"; standard of proof requires applicant to show that the fear is based on objective facts which make the fear reasonable under the circumstances, but not necessarily that he or she is more likely than not to become a victim of persecution.

      Related sources: TOC

      B.8.3. UNHCR mandate procedures TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Procedural Standards for Refugee Status Determination Under UNHCR's Mandate, 26 August 2020, /docid/5e870b254.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Aide-Memoire & Glossary of case processing modalities, terms and concepts applicable to RSD under UNHCR's Mandate (The Glossary), 2020, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a2657e44.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 11: Prima Facie Recognition of Refugee Status, 5 June 2015, HCR/GIP/15/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/555c335a4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, I. A. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department: Case for the Intervener, 27 October 2013, UKSC2012/0157, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52a098e34.html – concerning the basis, authority, quality and reality of UNHCR's refugee status determination process.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, In the Court of Final Appeal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Civil Appeals NOS. 18, 19 & 20 of 2011 between C, KMF, BF (Applicants) and Director of Immigration, Secretary for Security (Respondents) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener) – Intervener's Case, 31 January 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/510a74ce2.html – concerning the basis, purpose and nature of UNHCR's mandate RSD procedures, including vis-à-vis the responsibility of States not parties to the 1951 Convention (see section E at paras. 72 to 88).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status and Guidelines on International Protection Under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 2019, HCR/1P/4/ENG/REV. 4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5cb474b27.html [French (Revision 3)]

      B.8.4. Prima facie recognition TOC

      B.8.5. State Procedures TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Aide-Memoire & Glossary of case processing modalities, terms and concepts applicable to RSD under UNHCR's Mandate (The Glossary), 2020, /docid/5a2657e44.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Practical considerations for fair and fast border procedures and solidarity in the European Union, 15 October 2020, /docid/5f8838974.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNHCR Discussion Paper Fair and Fast - Accelerated and Simplified Procedures in the European Union, 25 July 2018, /docid/5b589eef4.html

      B.9. Effective remedies and access to courts TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations actualisées du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c. France, 31 March 2011, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9995d02.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also earlier intervention here [internal only], and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations écrites du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c/ France, September 2009, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4abb61992.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also updated observations here [internal only], and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Asylum Processes (Fair and Efficient Asylum Procedures), 31 May 2001, EC/GC/01/12, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b36f2fca.html

      B.10. Reception TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Comments on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast) – COM (2016) 465, August 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/59a6d6094.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Annotated Comments to Directive 2013/33/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 26 June 2013 laying down standards for the reception of applicants for international protection (recast), April 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5541d4f24.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of Defence for Children International (DCI) v. Belgium, 13 July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/500419f32.html – concerning adequate reception conditions and the social rights of asylum-seeking and refugee children.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Comments on the European Commission's amended recast proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and the Council laying down standards for the reception of asylum-seekers, July 2012, (COM (2011) 320 final, 1 June 2011), http://www.refworld.org/docid/500560852.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Submissions to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the framework of request for an Advisory Opinion on Migrant Children presented by MERCOSUR, 17 February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c959f2.html – concerning inter alia the general principles for the protection of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the context of RSD, including re early identification of needs, child-sensitive asylum procedures, reception standards, and detention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the reception conditions of asylum-seekers under the Dublin procedure, 1 August 2011, C‑179/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e37b5902.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, June 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c19e7512.html – concerning inter alia the material situation or reception conditions for asylum-seekers in Greece (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c7fbf052.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Comments on the European Commission's Proposal for a recast of the Directive laying down minimum standards for the reception of asylum-seekers (COM (2008)815 final of 3 December 2008), 13 March 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49ba8a192.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Reception of Asylum-Seekers, Including Standards of Treatment, in the Context of Individual Asylum Systems, 4 September 2001, EC/GC/01/17, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3bfa81864.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Reception Standards for Asylum Seekers in the European Union, July 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3440.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Annotated Comments on Council Directive 2003/9/EC of 27 January 2003 Laying Down Minimum Standards for the Reception of Asylum Seekers, July 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f3770104.html

      B.11. Entry (article 31) / Freedom of movement (article 26) / (alternatives to) detention TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Key Legal Considerations on access to territory for persons in need of international protection in the context of the COVID-19 response, 16 March 2020, /docid/5e7132834.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal Considerations on State Responsibilities for Persons Seeking International Protection in Transit Areas or "International" Zones at Airports, 17 January 2019, /docid/5c4730a44.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions on Non-Penalization for Illegal Entry or Presence: Interpreting and Applying Article 31 of the 1951 Refugee Convention, 15 March 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5b18f6740.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR's position regarding the detention of refugee and migrant children in the migration context, January 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5885c2434.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR letter to legal counsel re guidance on the interpretation of article 31 of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, 3 March 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/537e3f984.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Policy on Detention Monitoring, UNHCR/HCP/2015/7, August 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/564199b54.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) and the International Detention Coalition (IDC), Monitoring Immigration Detention: Practical Manual, 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/53706e354.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Second Global Roundtable on Reception and Alternatives to Detention: Summary of deliberations, August 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/55e8079f4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Beyond Detention: A Global Strategy to support governments to end the detention of asylum-seeker and refugees, 2014-2018, 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/536b564d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on the Applicable Criteria and Standards relating to the Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Alternatives to Detention, 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/503489533b8.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Comments on the European Commission's amended recast proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and the Council laying down standards for the reception of asylum-seekers, July 2012, (COM (2011) 320 final, 1 June 2011), http://www.refworld.org/docid/500560852.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Roundtable on Alternatives to Detention of Asylum-Seekers, Refugees, Migrants and Stateless Persons: Summary Conclusions, July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e315b882.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • Dr. Cathryn Costello (with Yulia Ioffe and Teresa Büchsel), UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Article 31 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, July 2017, PPLA/2017/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/59ad55c24.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, David Jennings, et al. v. Alejandro Rodriguez et al.: UNHCR Brief for Refugees as Amicus Curiae in the Supreme Court of the United States , 31 October 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5821c8f64.html - concerning detention of asylum-seekers; arbitrary detention; government bears the burden of demonstrating the lawfulness of detention; detention must be reviewed periodically by an independent decision-maker; length of detention; prolonged detention impedes access to asylum and can lead to refoulement.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the International Detention Coalition and The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 13 June 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b86f344.html
      • Cathryn Costello & Esra Kaytaz, Building Empirical Research into Alternatives to Detention: Perceptions of Asylum-Seekers and Refugees in Toronto and Geneva, June 2013, PPLA/2013/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51a6fec84.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Brief of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1st Amicus Curiae), in the matter of the contravention of fundamental rights and freedoms under Articles 2, 3, 10, 20, 21, 27, 28, 29, 36, 39 and 259, of the Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010, and in the matter of Articles 22, 23 and 258 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010 and in the matter of the Refugees Act and in the matter of the intention of the Government of Kenya to move all refugees residing in urban areas to the Dadaab and Kakuma Refugee Camps with effect from 21.01.2013, in the High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, Constitutional and Human Rights Division, 12 March 2013, Petition No. 115 of 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5151b5962.html – concerning the right to seek and enjoy asylum; the principle of non-refoulement; rights of residence and freedom of movement; urban refugee policy in the context of forced relocation (to camps) of asylum-seekers and refugees (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/51a869bb4.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Canada/USA Bi-National Roundtable on Alternatives to Detention of Asylum Seekers, Refugees, Migrants and Stateless Persons, February 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/515178a12.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Alaa Al-Tayyar Abdelhakim v. Hungary, 30 March 2012, Application No. 13058/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f75d5212.html – concerning detention of asylum-seekers for the purposes of expulsion; prolonged detention; risk of refoulement.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Said v. Hungary, 30 March 2012, Application No. 13457/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f75d5e72.html – concerning detention of asylum-seekers, including those transferred to Hungary under the Dublin II Regulation, for the purposes of expulsion; prolonged detention; risk of refoulement.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Submissions to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the framework of request for an Advisory Opinion on Migrant Children presented by MERCOSUR, 17 February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c959f2.html – concerning the right to asylum; the difference between "asilo" and "refugio"; general principles for the protection of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the context of RSD, including with regard to early identification of needs, child-sensitive asylum procedures, reception standards, and detention.
      • Alice Edwards, Back to Basics: The Right to Liberty and Security of Person and 'Alternatives to Detention' of Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Stateless Persons and Other Migrants, April 2011, PPLA/2011/01.Rev.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dc935fd2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), UN Economic and Social Council Resolution 2010/16: United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules), 22 July 2010, E/RES/2010/16, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92e5392.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Saadi v. United Kingdom. Written Submissions on Behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 30 March 2007, Appl. No. 13229/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47c520722.html – concerning admission, legal status and detention of asylum-seekers in the host territory during the asylum procedure, including whether, and in what circumstances, such detention is compatible with international refugee and human rights law.
      • Ophelia Field, Alternatives to Detention of Asylum Seekers and Refugees, April 2006, POLAS/2006/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4472e8b84.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Council of Europe: Committee of Ministers, Recommendation Rec(2003)5 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on Measures of Detention of Asylum Seekers, 16 April 2003, Rec(2003)5, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f8d65e54.html
      • Guy S. Goodwin-Gill, Article 31 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Non-Penalization, Detention, and Protection, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33b10.html [UNHCR-commissioned background paper, republished as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion from UNHCR on certain aspects of the detention of asylum-seekers by the INS (USA), 15 April 2002, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d1c87fe4.html
      • Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly, Recommendation 1475 (2000) Arrival of asylum seekers at European airports, 26 September 2000, Rec 1475 (2000), http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fdfb1cd.html
      • UN Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, 28 December 1999, E/CN.4/2000/4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f25a6.html
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), CCPR General Comment No. 27: Article 12 (Freedom of Movement), 2 November 1999, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45139c394.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Detention of Asylum-Seekers and Refugees: The Framework, the Problem and Recommended Practice, 4 June 1999, EC/49/SC/CRP.13, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47fdfaf33b5.html [French]
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), CCPR General Comment No. 21: Article 10 (Humane Treatment of Persons Deprived of Their Liberty), 10 April 1992, http://www.refworld.org/docid/453883fb11.html
      • UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Resolution 2000/21 on the Detention of Asylum-Seekers, 18 August 2000, 2000/21, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3dda66394.html
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HCR), CCPR General Comment No. 20: Article 7 (Prohibition of Torture, or Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment), 10 March 1992, http://www.refworld.org/docid/453883fb0.html
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), CCPR General Comment No. 15: The Position of Aliens Under the Covenant, 11 April 1986, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45139acfc.html
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), CCPR General Comment No. 8: Article 9 (Right to Liberty and Security of Persons), 30 June 1982, No. 8, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4538840110.html
      • UN General Assembly, United Nations Rules for Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty, 14 December 1990, A/RES/45/113, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f18628.html
      • UN General Assembly, Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment, 9 December 1988, A/RES/43/173, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f219c.html
      • UN General Assembly, Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners: resolution / adopted by the General Assembly, 28 March 1991, A/RES/45/111, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48abd5740.html [French]
      • UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, 13 May 1977, http://www.refworld.org/docid/514daf202.html - adopted by the First United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Geneva, 1955, and approved by the Economic and Social Council by res. 663 C (XXIV) of 31 July 1957 and extended in rec. 2076 (LXII) of 13 May 1977 to ensure that persons arrested or imprisoned without charge should benefit from most of the provisions.

      B.12. Obligations of refugees TOC

      B.13. Expulsion and non-refoulement (articles 32 and 33) TOC

      B.13.1. Expulsion (article 32) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Issasi v. Rosenzweig – Memorandum of Fact and Law of the Intervener, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 21 March 2011, Court File No. C52822, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d889b392.html – concerning the interaction between the 1951 Convention and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; scope and the content of the principle of non-refoulement and the prohibition of expulsion.

      Related sources: TOC

      B.13.2. Non-refoulement (article 33(1)) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Key Legal Considerations on access to territory for persons in need of international protection in the context of the COVID-19 response, 16 March 2020, /docid/5e7132834.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the UNHCR in the case of S.S. and Others. v. Italy (Appl. No. 21660/18) before the European Court of Human Rights , 14 November 2019, /docid/5dcebff54.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal Considerations on State Responsibilities for Persons Seeking International Protection in Transit Areas or "International" Zones at Airports, 17 January 2019, /docid/5c4730a44.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, General legal considerations: search-and-rescue operations involving refugees and migrants at sea, November 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a2e9efd4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, General legal considerations of relevance to NATO's engagement with the refugee and migrant movements in the Aegean Sea, 8 March 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56f3eeee4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, In the Court of Final Appeal of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Civil Appeals NOS. 18, 19 & 20 of 2011 between C, KMF, BF (Applicants) and Director of Immigration, Secretary for Security (Respondents) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (Intervener) – Intervener's Case, 31 January 2013, Civil Appeals Nos. 18, 19 & 20 of 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/510a74ce2.html – concerning the principle of non-refoulement as a norm of customary international law and the consequent duty for non-State Parties to provide protection from refoulement, as well as the basis, purpose and nature of UNHCR's mandate RSD procedures, including vis-à-vis the responsibility of States not parties to the 1951 Convention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Hirsi and Others v. Italy, 29 March 2011, Application no. 27765/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92d2c22.html – concerning the practice and justification of Italy's "push-back" operations, i.e. interception or interdiction at sea; the extra-territorial scope of the principle of non-refoulement; the situation of asylum-seekers and refugees in Libya, including reception and detention conditions and risk of refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e0356d42.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Issasi v. Rosenzweig – Memorandum of Fact and Law of the Intervener, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 21 March 2011, Court File No. C52822, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d889b392.html – concerning the interaction between the 1951 Convention and the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction; scope and the content of the principle of non-refoulement and the prohibition of expulsion.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the case of M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, June 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c19e7512.html – concerning transfers under the Dublin II Regulation and effective remedies available against such transfers; burden of proof and the presumption of safety of EU Member States / "Dublin" countries; the material situation of asylum-seekers in Greece, including reception conditions; access to Greece's asylum procedures and the risk of (indirect) refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c7fbf052.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion on the Extraterritorial Application of Non-Refoulement Obligations under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, 26 January 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45f17a1a4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on Diplomatic Assurances and International Refugee Protection, August 2006, /docid/44dc81164.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary Conclusions: The Principle of Non-Refoulement, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33b00.html [Summary conclusions published as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on the Principle of Non-Refoulement, November 1997, http://www.refworld.org/docid/438c6d972.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Principle of Non-Refoulement as a Norm of Customary International Law – Response to Questions posed to UNHCR by the Federal Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany, 31 January 1994, http://www.refworld.org/docid/437b6db64.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Brief of the Office of the UNHCR as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondents, Sale v. Haitian Refugee Centers Council, Inc., U.S. Supreme Court, October 1992, 509 U.S. 155 (1993) (No. 92-344), http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f336bbc4.html – concerning interpretation of Articles 33 and 40 and customary law obligation of non-return; scope of principle of non-refoulement; persons intercepted on the high seas; state responsibility for actions taken outside its territory or territorial waters.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Brief Amicus Curiae of the Office of the UNHCR in Support of Appellees, Haitian Refugee Center, Inc. v. Baker, 953 F.2d 1498, 31 December 1991, (U.S. 11th Cir. 1992) (Nos. 91-6060, 91-6105, and 91-6118), http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b03cd4c2.html – concerning international law as part of the law of the United States; treaty interpretation; scope of principle of non-refoulement; persons intercepted on the high seas; state responsibility for actions taken outside its borders.

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee Against Torture (CAT), General Comment No.2: Implementation of Article 2 by State Parties, 24 January 2008, CAT/C/GC/2, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47ac78ce2.html [French]
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), General comment no. 31 [80], The nature of the general legal obligation imposed on States Parties to the Covenant, 26 May 2004, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.13, http://www.refworld.org/docid/478b26ae2.html [French]
      • Elihu Lauterpacht & Daniel Bethlehem, The Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-Refoulement: Opinion, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33af0.html [UNHCR-commissioned background paper, republished as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]
      • UN Committee Against Torture (CAT), General Comment No. 4 (2017) on the implementation of article 3 of the Convention in the context of article 22, 9 February 2018, /docid/5a903dc84.html
      • UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), General Comment No. 20: Article 7 (Prohibition of Torture, or Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment), adopted at the Forty-fourth Session of the Human Rights Committee, on 10 March 1992, http://www.refworld.org/docid/453883fb0.html

      B.13.3. Exceptions (article 33(2)) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Delgado v. Holder, Brief of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioner, 16 October 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4cbdb45d2.html – concerning the "danger to the community" exception in Article 33(2) of the 1951 Convention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, N- A- M-, Petitioner, v. Michael Mukasey, Attorney General of the United States, Respondent. Brief for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees asAmicus Curiaein Support of Petitioner, 19 June 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48622dd72.html – concerning the exception to the principle of non-refoulement in Article 33(2); the requirement that a person has been convicted by a final judgment of a "particularly serious crime"; assessment of whether the person constitutes a future "danger to the community".
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Tiuang Ling Thang v. Alberto Gonzales, Attorney General of the United States. Brief of the UNHCR as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioner, 21 February 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4891c94a2.html – concerning determination of individual responsibility; application of Article 1F and Article 33(2) in the US; material support bar.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) on the Scope of the National Security Exception Under Article 33(2) of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 6 January 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43de2da94.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Manickavasagam Suresh (Appellant) and the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, the Attorney General of Canada (Respondents). Factum of the Intervenor, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ("UNHCR"), 8 March 2001, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3e71bbe24.html – concerning the application of Article 33 of the 1951 Convention and its relationship with Article 3(1) of the Convention against Torture; restriction of Article 33(2) of the 1951 Convention by the prohibition of refoulement to torture in Article 3(1) of the Convention against Torture; the test for applying the "danger to the security of the country" exception in Article 33(2) of the 1951 Convention.

      Related sources: TOC

      • Elihu Lauterpacht and Daniel Bethlehem, The Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-Refoulement: Opinion, June 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/470a33af0.html [UNHCR-commissioned background paper, republished as a book chapter in UNHCR (2003), see here]

      B.13.4. Diplomatic assurances TOC

      B.14. Extradition TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • Sibylle Kapferer, The Interface Between Extradition and Asylum, November 2003, PPLA/2003/05, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3fe846da4.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Karin Landgren, Deflecting international protection by treaty: bilateral and multilateral accords on extradition, readmission and the inadmissibility of asylum requests, 15 June 1999, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ff58fb92.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection (submitted by the High Commissioner), 2 August 1989, A/AC.96/728, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68bfe20.html [French] [See section "Extradition of Refugees", para. 21 – 29]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on Problems of Extradition Affecting Refugees, 27 August 1980, EC/SCP/14, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68ccdc.html [French]

      B.15. Rights of asylum-seekers and refugees TOC

      B.15.1. Employment / Self-reliance (articles 17-19) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Expert opinion of UNHCR on issues of the right to work for refugees and asylum-seekers in the case of [South African Somali Association vs Limpopo Department of Economic Development, Environment and Tourism] in the North Gauteng High Court, Pretoria, South Africa, 14 March 2013, 12/HCR/RSA/ADM/594, //docid/5215d0734.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Director-General of the International Labour Office (ILO), 21 October 1983, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31acc.html

      Related sources: TOC

      B.15.2. Housing, Land and Property (article 21) TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), Duties of States towards refugees and migrants under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13 March 2017, E/C.12/2017/1, /docid/5bbe0bc04.html
      • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security, 2012, ISBN 978-92-5-107277-6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5322b79e4.html
      • UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Fact Sheet No. 21, The Human Right to Adequate Housing, November 2009, Fact Sheet No. 21/Rev.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/479477400.html
      • Scott Leckie, Housing, Land and Property Rights in Post-Conflict Societies: Proposals for a New United Nations Institutional and Policy Framework, March 2005, PPLA/2005/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/425689fa4.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Housing, Land and Property Rights in Post-Conflict Societies: Proposals for their Integration Into UN Policy and Operational Frameworks. Main Issues Discussed and Summary Conclusions (Geneva Expert Meeting, 10-11 November 2004), February 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/425690684.html
      • UN Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Human Rights resolution 2004/21: Adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living, 16 April 2004, E/CN.4/RES/2004/21, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43f31361c.html

      B.15.3. Education (article 22) TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), Duties of States towards refugees and migrants under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13 March 2017, E/C.12/2017/1, /docid/5bbe0bc04.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugee Education: A Global Review, November 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/510a718e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Safe Schools and Learning Environment. How to Prevent and Respond to Violence in Refugee Schools: A Guide, June 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/469200e82.html
      • UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), The Millennium Development Goals and the United Nations Girls Education Initiative: A Guidance Note to UN Country Teams, April 2002, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51e91e894.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries, December 2001, ISBN 92-1-101044-6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51e91de94.html

      B.15.4. Social welfare / Public relief (article 23-24) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Schreiben an das Bundesverfassungsgericht 1 BvL 3/11, 20 May 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dde74f42.html [English (unofficial translation)] – concerning non-discrimination / non-differential treatment regarding parental allowance for the care of children for persons granted refugee status and subsidiary protection.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Stellungnahme an das Bundesverfassungsgericht im Verfahren 1 BvL 10/10, December 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d08ef5d2.html – concerning the determination of social assistance to asylum-seekers in accordance with the subsistence minimum and the principle of human dignity.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Representation to the Social Security Advisory Committee on the Social Security (Persons from Abroad) Miscellaneous Amendment Regulations, 10 November 1995, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31daf.html

      B.15.5. Health TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      B.15.6. Other rights / Levels of attachment TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on the right for refugees to hold and express political opinions in their country of asylum, 6 March 2020, /docid/5e67588e4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Updated UNHCR Observations on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2003/109/EC Establishing a Long-Term Residence Status to Extend its Scope to Beneficiaries of International Protection, August 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c601c5e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations on the Commission Proposal for a Council Directive Amending Directive 2003/109/EC Establishing a Long-Term Residence Status to Extend its Scope to Beneficiaries of International Protection, 29 February 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/47cc017a2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 7 September 1994, A/AC.96/830, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f0a935f2.html [French] [see para. 9]

      Related sources: TOC

      • Geoff Gilbert, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Political participation of refugees in their country of nationality, November 2018, PPLA/2018/04, [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection], http://www.refworld.org/docid/5beaf3dc7.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Key legal considerations on the standards of treatment of refugees recognized under the 1969 OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 19 December 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a391d4f4.html
      • UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), Duties of States towards refugees and migrants under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 13 March 2017, E/C.12/2017/1, /docid/5bbe0bc04.html
      • Ruma Mandal, Political Rights of Refugees, November 2003, PPLA/2003/04, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3fe820794.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]

      B.16. Identity papers / Convention Travel Documents (articles 27-28) TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guide for Issuing Machine Readable Convention Travel Documents for Refugees and Stateless Persons, jointly published by UNHCR and the ICAO, February 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52b166a34.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Bisher Al Rawi, Jamil El Banna, Omar Deghayes, Wahab Al Rawi, Jahida Sayyadi, Sabah Sunnoqrot, Abubaker Deghayes (appellants) v. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and Secretary of State for the Home Department (respondents), Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (intervener), case for the intervener (UNHCR), 12 July 2006, C1/2006/1064, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45c350974.html – submission before the UK House of Lords concerning the right and responsibility of one country which has recognized someone as a refugee to intervene with another on his or her behalf; scope and extent of the obligations of States Parties to the 1951 Convention / 1967 Protocol between themselves; Articles 16 and 25 of the 1951 Convention; extraterritorial effect of decision on refugee status; diplomatic protection; Convention Travel Document.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on follow-up to the earlier Conclusion of the Executive Committee on Travel Documents for Refugees, 3 July 1987, EC/SCP/48, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cca8.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Identity Documents for Refugees, 20 July 1984, EC/SCP/33, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cce4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on Travel Documents for Refugees, 30 August 1978, EC/SCP/10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cce14.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Amicus curiae of UNHCR on the interpretation and application of Article 25, Article 27 and Article 28 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, 22 December 2016, /docid/591589be4.html - concerning the obligation of Contracting States to provide administrative assistance, pursuant to Article 25; the obligation to issue 'identity papers' to refugees who does not possess valid travel documents, pursuant to Article 27; and the obligation to issue travel documents pursuant to Article 28.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Opinion: The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the Obligations of States under Articles 25, 27 and 28, with particular reference to refugees without identity or travel documents, May 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51af00184.html [Opinion prepared at the Request of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees]

      C. Asylum and Migration

      C.1. Asylum – general TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 'Refugees' and 'Migrants' - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), 15 March 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56e81c0d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the right to asylum, UNHCR's supervisory responsibility and the duty of States to cooperate with UNHCR in the exercise of its supervisory responsibility. Issued in the context of a reference for a preliminary ruling addressed to Court of Justice of the European Union by the Administrative Court of Sofia lodged on 18 October 2011 – Zuheyr Freyeh Halaf v. the Bulgarian State Agency for Refugees, August 2012, C-528/11, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5017fc202.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Submissions to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the framework of request for an Advisory Opinion on Migrant Children presented by MERCOSUR, 17 February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f4c959f2.html – concerning the right to asylum; the difference between "asilo" and "refugio"; general principles for the protection of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the context of RSD, including with regard to early identification of needs, child-sensitive asylum procedures, reception standards, and detention.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Oral Submissions in Joined Cases of NS (C-411/10) and ME and Others (C-493/10), 28 June 2011, C-411/10 and C-493/10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e1b10bc2.html – concerning the transfer of asylum-seekers under the EU Dublin Regulation, and the obligation of EU Member States not to transfer where to do so would entail a likely breach of fundamental rights, including the right to asylum (examples of such a breach are provided).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, N.S. v. Secretary of State for the Home Department in United Kingdom; M.E. and Others v. Refugee Application Commissioner and the Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform in Ireland – Written Observations of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 1 February 2011, C-411/10 and C-493/10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d493e822.html – concerning the transfer of asylum-seekers under the EU Dublin Regulation, and the obligation of EU Member States not to transfer where to do so would entail a likely breach of fundamental rights, including the right to asylum.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 3 July 2013, A/AC.96/1122, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52bc02504.html [French] [See section IV ("Refugee protection and international migration")]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 30 June 2008, A/AC.96/1053, http://www.refworld.org/docid/486902122.html [French], [See section III ("The right to seek asylum") and IV ("The right to enjoy asylum")]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 7 July 2000, A/AC.96/930, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68d6c4.html [French], [See Section II "Availability and Quality of Asylum"]

      C.2. Access to territory and procedures TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal Considerations on State Responsibilities for Persons Seeking International Protection in Transit Areas or "International" Zones at Airports, 17 January 2019, /docid/5c4730a44.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations actualisées du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c. France, requête no. 9152/09, 31 March 2011, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9995d02.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also earlier intervention here, and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html)
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Hirsi and Others v. Italy, 29 March 2011, Application no. 27765/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92d2c22.html – concerning the practice and justification of Italy's "push-back" operations, i.e. interception or interdiction at sea; the extra-territorial scope of the principle of non-refoulement; the situation of asylum-seekers and refugees in Libya, including reception and detention conditions and risk of refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e0356d42.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations écrites du Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés devant la Cour européenne des droits de l'homme dans l'affaire I. M. c/ France, September 2009, Requête no. 9152/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4abb61992.html – concerning accelerated RSD procedures for persons in pre-removal detention at the airport; access to interpreters and obligation to submit the refugee application in French; short delay to submit a refugee application; non-suspensive effect of the appeal; absence of safeguards ensuring the effective respect of the principle of non-refoulement (see also updated observations here, and UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd2b7912.html).

      C.3. Asylum / Migration nexus TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Training Manual for European Border and Entry Officials, 1 April 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ddf40d12.html
      • Katy Long and Jeff Crisp, In Harm's Way: the irregular movement of migrants to Southern Africa from the Horn and Great Lakes regions, January 2011, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d887a0f2.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Statement of the Global Migration Group on the Human Rights of Migrants in Irregular Situation, 30 September 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f7157bc2.html
      • Katy Long, Extending protection? Labour migration and durable solutions for refugees, October 2009, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f719bcd2.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • Jeff Crisp, Beyond the nexus: UNHCR's evolving perspective on refugee protection and international migration, 30 April 2008, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c2325646.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR's Observations and Recommendations to the High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, June 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/44ca0fd24.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, "Are Refugees Migrants? A Dangerous Confusion". Speech by Ms. Erika Feller, Director of the Department of International Protection, SID lecture series "Migration and Development: Challenges for a World on the Move" (Amsterdam, 27 January 2004), 27 January 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/403603a24.html

      C.4. Smuggling / Trafficking TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, General legal considerations of relevance to NATO's engagement with the refugee and migrant movements in the Aegean Sea, 8 March 2016, http://www.refworld.org/docid/56f3eeee4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Smuggling and Trafficking from the East of Africa: Executive Summary, March 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51d175314.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on the Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol to Victims of Trafficking in France, 12 June 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fd84b012.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Prevent. Combat. Protect: Human Trafficking, November 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4edcbf932.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR intervention before the European Court of Human Rights in the case of Hirsi and Others v. Italy, 29 March 2011, Application no. 27765/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92d2c22.html - concerning inter alia the relationship between the principle of non-refoulement and the Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime ('Palermo Protocol').
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Heightened Risk Identification Tool (User Guide), June 2010, Second Edition, http://www.refworld.org/docid/46f7c0cd2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Heightened Risk Identification Tool, June 2010, Second Edition, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c46c6860.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Comments on the proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings, and protecting victims (COM(2010)95, 29 March 2010), June 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c0fa7092.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protecting Trafficked Persons in the Americas: A Refugee Law Perspective, May 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bf0f11e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Human Trafficking and Refugee Protection: UNHCR's Perspective, September 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ae17da12.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugee Protection and Human Trafficking. Selected Legal Reference Materials, First Edition, December 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/498705862.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidelines on International Protection No. 7: The Application of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees to Victims of Trafficking and Persons At Risk of Being Trafficked, 7 April 2006, HCR/GIP/06/07, http://www.refworld.org/docid/443679fa4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Human Rights and Human Trafficking, Paper by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Regional Preparatory Meeting for the 10-Year Review of Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action (14–15 December 2004), December 2004, CRP.6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43f48b284.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Co-operation to Address the Irregular Movement of Asylum-Seekers and Refugees: Elements for an International Framework, 17 April 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3edcdb781.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Observations by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees on the Proposal for an EU Council Framework Decision on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 27 June 2001, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3c6a65274.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Summary Position on the Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air and the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, 11 December 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3428.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General recommendation No. 38 on trafficking in women and girls in the context of global migration, 20 November 2020, CEDAW/C/GC/38, /docid/6006fa354.html
      • United Nations, Commentary on the Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, November 2010, HR/PUB/10/2, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d2eb7cf2.html
      • UN General Assembly, Trafficking in persons, especially women and children: note / by the Secretary-General, 9 August 2010, A/65/288, http://www.refworld.org/docid/521f387b4.html [French]
      • UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Toolkit to Combat Smuggling of Migrants. Tool 1, Understanding the smuggling of migrants, July 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f1e8ca22.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugee Protection and International Migration in the Americas: Trends, Protection Challenges and Responses, December 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c59329b2.html
      • Jacqueline Bhabha and Christina Alfirev, The Identification and Referral of Trafficked Persons to Procedures for Determining International Protection Needs, October 2009, PPLAS/2009/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ad317bc2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), International Framework for Action: To Implement the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, September 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ad871540.html
      • Maria Riiskj?r & Anna Marie Gallagher, Review of UNHCR's efforts to prevent and respond to human trafficking, 29 September 2008, PDES/2008/07, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d10b54f2.html
      • Kaori Saito, International protection for trafficked persons and those who fear being trafficked, 20 December 2007, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c247bc32.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Human Rights and Human Trafficking, December 2004, CRP.6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43f48b284.html
      • Jenna Shearer Demir, The trafficking of women for sexual exploitation: a gender-based and well-founded fear of persecution?, 1 March 2003, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ff3f1e42.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Recommended Principles and Guidelines on Human Rights and Human Trafficking, Substantive Session in 2002, 20 May 2002, UN Doc. E/2002/68/Add.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f1fc60f4.html
      • UN General Assembly, Note by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the United Nations Children's Fund and the International Organization for Migration on the draft protocols concerning migrant smuggling and trafficking in persons, 8 February 2000, A/AC.254/27, http://www.refworld.org/docid/431840242.html

      C.5. Asylum-seekers at sea / Maritime issues TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, General legal considerations: search-and-rescue operations involving refugees and migrants at sea, November 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5a2e9efd4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Rescue at Sea. A Guide to Principles and Practice as Applied to Refugees and Migrants, January 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/54b365554.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Initiative on Protection at Sea, 1 May 2014, http://www.refworld.org/docid/53abd14d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Caribbean Regional Conference on the Protection of Vulnerable Persons in Mixed Migration Flows, Promoting Cooperation and Identification of Good Practices : Conference Conclusions, 23 May 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51e3bf684.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Co-Chairs' Summary: Regional Roundtable on Irregular Movements by Sea in the Asia- Pacific Region, 20 March 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51e3bcfe4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees and Asylum-Seekers in Distress at Sea – how best to respond?, Summary Conclusions, including "Model Framework for Cooperation following Rescue at Sea Operations involving Refugees and Asylum-Seekers", Djibouti, 5 December 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ede0d392.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Rescue at Sea, Stowaways and Maritime Interception: Selected Reference Materials, December 2011, 2nd Edition, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ee087492.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Policy Paper: Maritime interception operations and the processing of international protection claims: legal standards and policy considerations with respect to extraterritorial processing, November 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4cd12d3a2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The treatment of persons rescued at sea: conclusions and recommendations from recent meetings and expert round tables convened by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 11 April 2008, A/AC.259/17, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49997aeb27.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • Council of Europe: Parliamentary Assembly, Lives lost in the Mediterranean Sea: who is responsible? 5 April 2012, Doc. 12895, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f7be86b2.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Hirsi and Others v. Italy, 29 March 2011, Application no. 27765/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92d2c22.html – concerning the practice and justification of Italy's "push-back" operations, i.e. interception or interdiction at sea; the extra-territorial scope of the principle of non-refoulement; the situation of asylum-seekers and refugees in Libya, including reception and detention conditions and risk of refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e0356d42.html).

      C.6. Persons not in need of international protection / Return of persons who have had their asylum claim rejected / Re-admission agreements TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 'Migrants in vulnerable situations' UNHCR's perspective, June 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/596787174.html - Chapter 9
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugee Protection and Mixed Migration: The 10-Point Plan in action, February 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9430ea2.html - Chapter 9
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Policy Paper: The return of persons found not to be in need of international protection to their countries of origin: UNHCR's role, November 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4cea23c62.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Position on the Proposal for a Directive on Common Standards and Procedures in Member States for Returning Illegally Staying Third-Country Nationals, 16 June 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4856322c2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations on the European Commissions Proposal for a Directive on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals (COM(2005) 391 final), 16 December 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43a2a58f4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Regional Meetings: Conclusions (Regional Meeting in Budapest, 6-7 June 2001), 15 June 2001, EC/GC/01/14, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b36f29b1.html

      Related sources: TOC

      C.7. National security / International crimes / Terrorism TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Addressing Security Concerns Without Undermining Refugee Protection - UNHCR's Perspective, 17 December 2015, Rev. 2, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5672aed34.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Statement on Article 1F of the 1951 Convention, July 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a5de2992.html – concerning the scope of Article 1F(b) and (c); exclusion in cases involving membership of a terrorist organization; proportionality.
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, YS (Egypt) (Appellant) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent). Case for the Intervener (UNHCR), 19 November 2008, C5/2007/2372, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4940d04e2.html – concerning the scope of Article 1F(c); application of Article 1F(c) to acts of "terrorism".
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Addressing Security Concerns Without Undermining Refugee Protection – UNHCR's Perspective, 29 November 2001, Rev.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3c0b880e0.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Selected Documents Relating to National Security and Counter-Terrorism Relevant to International Refugee Protection, May 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/49feeaa62.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, "Terrorism as a Global Phenomenon", UNHCR presentation to the Joint Seminar of the Strategic Committee on Immigration, Frontiers and Asylum (SCIFA) and Committee on Article 36 (CATS), 17 January 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4794c7ff2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Background Paper on Preserving the Institution of Asylum and Refugee Protection in the Context of Counter-Terrorism: The Problem of Terrorist Mobility, October 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/475fec412.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Preserving the Institution of Asylum and Refugee Protection in the Context of Counter-Terrorism: The Problem of Terrorist Mobility, 31 October 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/475feb292.html

      C.8. Extraterritorial processing TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on the "Externalization" of International Protection, May 2021, /docid/60b115604.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Annex to UNHCR Note on the "Externalization" of International Protection: Policies and practices related to the externalization of international protection, May 2021, /docid/60b115b64.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance Note on bilateral and/or multilateral transfer arrangements of asylum-seekers, May 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51af82794.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Protection Policy Paper: Maritime interception operations and the processing of international protection claims: legal standards and policy considerations with respect to extraterritorial processing, November 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4cd12d3a2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion on the Extraterritorial Application of Non-Refoulement Obligations under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol, 26 January 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/45f17a1a4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Working Paper: A Revised "EU Prong" Proposal, 22 December 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/400e85b84.html

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Submission by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Case of Hirsi and Others v. Italy, 29 March 2011, Application no. 27765/09, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d92d2c22.html – concerning the practice and justification of Italy's "push-back" operations, i.e. interception or interdiction at sea; the extra-territorial scope of the principle of non-refoulement; the situation of asylum-seekers and refugees in Libya, including reception and detention conditions and risk of refoulement (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e0356d42.html).

      D. Protection in Mass Influx Situations / Emergency Response

      D.1. Protection in mass influx situations / Emergency response – general TOC

      D.2. Temporary protection TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Roundtable on Temporary Protection: 19-20 July 2012. International Institute of Humanitarian Law, San Remo, Italy: Discussion Paper, 20 July 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/506d8ff02.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Expert Meeting on International Cooperation to Share Burdens and Responsibilities, 28 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e9fed232.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Annotated Comments on Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx of Displaced Persons and on Measures Promoting a Balance of Efforts Between Member States in Receiving Such Persons and Bearing the Consequences Thereof, 19 May 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ecdeebc4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Protection of Refugees in Mass Influx Situations: Overall Protection Framework, 19 February 2001, EC/GC/01/4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3bfa83504.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Summary Observations on the Commission Proposal for a Council Directive on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx (Comm (2000) 303, 24 May 2000), 15 September 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/437c64b04.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Commentary on the Draft European Union Directive on Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx, 15 September 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/437c5ca74.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Progress Report on Informal Consultations on the Provision of International Protection to all Who Need It, 25 May 1998, EC/48/SC/CRP.32, http://www.refworld.org/docid/522477fa4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Progress Report on Informal Consultations on the Provision of International Protection to All Who Need It, 30 May 1997, EC/47/SC/CRP.27, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a54bc290.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Progress Report on Informal Consultations on the Provision of International Protection to all Who Need It, 28 May 1996, EC/46/SC/CRP.34, http://www.refworld.org/docid/522477a34.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 7 September 1994, A/AC.96/830, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f0a935f2.html [French] [See in particular, part IV.B: "Temporary protection as a pragmatic tool for meeting the need for international protection of refugees, including those outside the scope of the 1951 Convention"]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Report of the Meeting of the Expert Group on Temporary Refuge in Situations of Large-Scale Influx (Geneva 21-24 April 1981), 17 July 1981, EC/SCP/16/Add.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68cd04.html

      D.3. Civilian character of asylum / Physical security of refugees TOC

      D.4. Armed conflict / Relations with the military TOC

      D.5. Camps TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Policy on Alternatives to Camps , 22 July 2014, UNHCR/HCP/2014/9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5423ded84.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Brief of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1st Amicus Curiae), in the matter of the contravention of fundamental rights and freedoms under Articles 2, 3, 10, 20, 21, 27, 28, 29, 36, 39 and 259, of the Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010, and in the matter of Articles 22, 23 and 258 of the Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010 and in the matter of the Refugees Act and in the matter of the intention of the Government of Kenya to move all refugees residing in urban areas to the Dadaab and Kakuma Refugee Camps with effect from 21.01.2013, in the High Court of Kenya at Nairobi, Constitutional and Human Rights Division, Petition No. 115 of 2013, 12 March 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5151b5962.html – concerning the right to seek and enjoy asylum; the principle of non-refoulement; rights of residence and freedom of movement; urban refugee policy in the context of forced relocation (to camps) of asylum-seekers and refugees (see also UNHCR's oral statement in this case, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/51a869bb4.html).
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Operational Protection in Camps and Settlements. A Reference Guide of Good Practices in the Protection of Refugees and Other Persons of Concern, June 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/44b381994.html

      Related sources: TOC

      D.6. Registration TOC

      E. International Solidarity / Burden-sharing / Responsibility-sharing / Comprehensive Approach

      Related sources:

      • Alexander Betts, Comprehensive Plans of Action: Insights from CIREFCA and the Indochinese CPA, 1 January 2006, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ff163c82.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]

      F. Specific Protection Priorities

      F.1. Women of Concern TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group , B.1.8. Gender-related persecution, B.1.10. Child asylum claims and B.1.11. Sexual orientation and gender identity

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General recommendation No. 38 on trafficking in women and girls in the context of global migration, 20 November 2020, CEDAW/C/GC/38, /docid/6006fa354.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR's Dialogues with Refugee Women, 14 February 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5231b1214.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Survivors, Protectors, Providers: Refugee Women Speak Out, 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f310baa2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement. Module 3: Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Resettlement (Resource Package), October 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e73bef4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement. Module 2: Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in Refugee Status Determination – Procedural Issues (Resource Package), October 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e73b644.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in the Context of Refugee Status Determination and Resettlement. Module 1: Ensuring Gender Sensitivity in Refugee Status Determination (Resource Package), October 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/43e73af14.html

      F.2. Children of Concern TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group, B.1.8. Gender-related persecution, B.1.10. Child asylum claims and B.1.11. Sexual orientation and gender identity

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW), Joint general comment No. 4 (2017) of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and No. 23 (2017) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on State obligations regarding the human rights of children in the context of international migration in countries of origin, transit, destination and return, 16 November 2017, CMW/C/GC/4-CRC/C/GC/23, /docid/5a12942a2b.html
      • UN Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families (CMW), Joint general comment No. 3 (2017) of the Committee on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families and No. 22 (2017) of the Committee on the Rights of the Child on the general principles regarding the human rights of children in the context of international migration, 16 November 2017, CMW/C/GC/3-CRC/C/GC/22, /docid/5a1293a24.html
      • UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), Caring for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for health and psychosocial service providers in humanitarian settings, 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/532aa6834.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Special measures applying to the return of unaccompanied and separated children to Afghanistan, August 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c91dbb22.html
      • UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General Comment No. 6 (2005), Treatment of Unaccompanied and Separated Children outside their Country of Origin, 1 September 2005, CRC/GC/2005/6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42dd174b4.html [French]

      F.3. Older Persons and Persons with Disabilities TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group

      Related sources: TOC

      F.4. National, Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities and Indigenous Peoples TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article (1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group and B.1.6. Religious-based refugee claims

      Related sources: TOC

      F.5. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex persons TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group, B.1.8. Gender-related persecution, B.1.10. Child asylum claims and B.1.11. Sexual orientation and gender identity

      Related sources: TOC

      • International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), Yogyakarta Principles – Principles on the application of international human rights law in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity, March 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/48244e602.html [French]

      F.6. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence TOC

      NB: This section relates to operational protection concerns and priorities. For asylum claims and the scope of the Convention grounds, please refer to B.1. Inclusion (article 1A(2)) above, in particular B.1.7. Membership of a particular social group, B.1.8. Gender-related persecution, B.1.10. Child asylum claims and B.1.11. Sexual orientation and gender identity

      Related sources: TOC

      F.7. HIV/AIDS TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      F.8. Age, Gender and Diversity TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      F.9. Protection of Civilians TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • Overseas Development Institute (ODI), UN Integration and Humanitarian Space: An Independent Study Commissioned by the UN Integration Steering Group, December 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52399b704.html
      • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Protecting Civilians in the Context of UN Peacekeeping Operations, November 2009, ISBN: 978-92-1-1320209-9, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52399ae24.html
      • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Aide Memoire – For the consideration of issues pertaining to the protection of civilians in armed conflict, 2011, Vol. I N°4, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52399a794.html
      • UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), Framework for Drafting Comprehensive Protection of Civilians (POC): Strategies in UN Peacekeeping Operations, 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/523998464.html
      • Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), Frequently Asked Questions on International Humanitarian, Human Rights and Refugee Law in the Context of Armed Conflict, March 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a54bc03d.html

      F.10. Refugees in Urban Settings TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • Elizabeth Umlas, Cash in hand: Urban refugees, the right to work UNHCR's advocacy activities, 5 May 2011, PDES/2011/05, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e4b75ed2.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]

      G. Durable Solutions

      G.1. Durable Solutions – General (in relation to both refugees and IDPs) TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      G.2. Return, Voluntary Repatriation and Reintegration TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security , 2012, ISBN 978-92-5-107277-6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5322b79e4.html
      • Katy Long, Back to where you once belonged A historical review of UNHCR policy and practice on refugee repatriation, September 2013, PDES/2013/14, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5226d8f44.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's UNHCR Evaluation Reports Series]
      • United Nations, United Nations Policy for Post-Conflict Employment Creation Income Generation and Reintegration, June 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5227107a4.html

      G.3. Resettlement TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      G.4. Local Integration in the Country of Asylum TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, A New Beginning: Refugee Integration in Europe, September 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/522980604.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Benefits of Belonging: Local integration options and opportunities for host countries, communities and refugees, 29 July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e56170b2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Integration of Beneficiaries of International Protection in the European Union: Observations and Recommendations to the European Commission in its consultation on the upcoming Second European Union Agenda for Integration, March 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d8ca44a2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Updated UNHCR Observations on the Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2003/109/EC Establishing a Long-Term Residence Status to Extend its Scope to Beneficiaries of International Protection, August 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c601c5e2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Integration of Beneficiaries of International Protection in the European Union – Recommendations to the European Ministerial Conference on Integration, Zaragosa (15 and 16 April 2010), April 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bc862412.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Agenda for the Integration of Refugees in Central Europe, April 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bfe72542.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Observations on the European Commission Communication "A Common Agenda for Integration: Framework for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals in the European Union" (COM (2005) 389 final, 1.9.2005), 14 November 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/437b4e7e4.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Local Integration and Self-Reliance, Executive Committee of the High Commissioner's Programme, Standing Committee, 2 June 2005, EC/55/SC/CRP.15, http://www.refworld.org/docid/478b3ce12.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Global Consultations on International Protection/Third Track: Local Integration, 25 April 2002, EC/GC/02/6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3d6266e17.html [French]

      Related sources: TOC

      • Migration Policy Group (MPG), EU support for Integration: what about beneficiaries of International Protection? A User's Guide to EU Standards, Funds and Cooperation, 14 April 2010, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4bfe96782.html
      • Katy Long, Extending protection? Labour migration and durable solutions for refugees, October 2009, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f719bcd2.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Handbook for Planning and Implementing Development Assistance for Refugees (DAR) Programme, January 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/428076704.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Promoting integration through mobility: free movement and the ECOWAS Protocol, 25 December 2007, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c2325600.html
      • Rosa da Costa, Rights of Refugees in the Context of Integration: Legal Standards and Recommendations, June 2006, POLAS/2006/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/44bb9b684.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]

      G.5. Family Reunification TOC

      H. Statelessness

      H.1. International legal instruments relating to nationality and statelessness TOC

      H.2. UNHCR's statelessness mandate TOC

      H.3. Guidance on specific aspects of UNHCR's mandate on identification, prevention, and reduction of statelessness and protection of stateless persons TOC

      H.4. Promotion of accession to the statelessness conventions TOC

      I. Internally Displaced Persons

      NB: Due to the nature of UNHCR's operational engagement on behalf of IDPs, and the fact that UNHCR does not have a general or exclusive mandate for IDPs, documents included in this section for the guidance of UNHCR staff are not limited solely to UNHCR-developed policy guidance.

      I.1. Normative framework on IDPs TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), Model Act for the Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (with commentary), March 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5242cee74.html

      I.2. Policy guidance regarding IDPs TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      I.3. Operational guidance regarding IDPs TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • Guillermo Bettocchi, Ana Grace Cabrera, Jeff Crisp & Anna de la Varga Fito, Protection and Solutions in Situations of Internal Displacement: Learning from UNHCR's Operational Experience, August 2002, EPAU/2002/10, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b073934.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's UNHCR Evaluation Reports Series]

      I.4. Durable solutions for IDPs TOC

      See G.I, Durable Solutions General, in relation to both Refugees and IDPs

      J. Global Protection Cluster

      NB: Due to the nature of UNHCR's operational engagement in the GPC inter-agency forum, documents included in this section for the guidance of UNHCR staff are not limited solely to UNHCR-developed policy guidance.

      J.1. GPC guidance on IDPs TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security , 2012, ISBN 978-92-5-107277-6, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5322b79e4.html

      J.2. Protection Mainstreaming TOC

      J.3. Transformative Agenda TOC

      K. Displacement related to Climate Change and Disasters

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Legal considerations regarding claims for international protection made in the context of the adverse effects of climate change and disasters, October 2020, /docid/5f75f2734.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Climate change and disaster displacement in the Global Compact on Refugees, https://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/5c9e13297/climate-change-disaster-displacement-global-compact-refugees.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Key concepts on climate change and disaster displacement, https://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/5943aea97/key-concepts-climate-change-disaster-displacement.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UNHCR's Mapping of international and regional guidance and tools on averting, minimizing, addressing and facilitating durable solutions to displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change, August 2018, https://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/5c9e13c77/unhcrs-mapping-international-regional-guidance-tools-averting-minimizing.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Persons in need of international protection, June 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/596787734.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change, Disasters and Displacement, 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5aa695874.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Legal considerations on refugee protection for people fleeing conflict and famine affected countries, 5 April 2017, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5906e0824.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Challenges relating to climate change induced displacement, 29 January 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/510a3a372.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Human mobility in the context of loss and damage from climate change: Needs, gaps, and roles of the Convention in addressing loss and damage, 19 October 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5153ffac2.html
      • Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), Nansen Principles on Climate Change and Displacement, 7 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/521485ef4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Summary of Deliberations on Climate Change and Displacement, Expert Meeting, Bellagio, Italy, April 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d9f22b32.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement: A UNHCR Perspective, 14 August 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a8e4f8b2.html

      Related sources:

      • Sanjula Weerasinghe, In Harm's Way: International Protection in the Context of Nexus Dynamics Between Conflict or Violence and Disaster or Climate Change , December 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5c2f54fe4.html
      • Hannah Entwisle, The world turned upside down: A review of protection risks and UNHCR's role in natural disasters, March 2013, PDES/2013/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5142d4652.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • Walter K?lin, 'From the Nansen Principles to the Nansen Initiative', Forced Migration Review No. 41 – Preventing displacement, December 2012, ISSN 1460-9819, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50c5c5fb2.html - p. 48
      • Elizabeth Ferris, Protection and Planned Relocations in the Context of Climate Change, August 2012, PPLA/2012/04, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5023774e2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN General Assembly, Protection of persons in the event of disaster: texts and titles of draft Articles 5 3bis, 12, 13, 14 and 15 / provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee from 5 to 11 July 2012, 12 July 2012, A/CN.4/L.812, http://www.refworld.org/docid/520b65d14.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Climate Change, Vulnerability and Human Mobility: Perspectives of Refugees from the East and Horn of Africa, June 2012, Report No. 1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5154014e2.html
      • Walter K?lin and Nina Schrepfer, Protecting People Crossing Borders in the Context of Climate Change Normative Gaps and Possible Approaches, February 2012, PPLA/2012/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f38a9422.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • UN General Assembly, Protection of persons in the event of disasters: texts and titles of draft Articles 10 and 11 / provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee on 19 July 2011, 20 July 2011, A/CN.4/L.794, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b087a74.html [French]
      • Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), The Nansen Conference: Climate Change and Displacement in the 21st Century, 7 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/521485ef4.html [The Nansen Principles are set out at p 5 of this report]
      • Jane McAdam, Climate Change Displacement and International Law: Complementary Protection Standards, May 2011, PPLA/2011/03, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fdf20022.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Koko Warner, Climate Change Induced Displacement: Adaptation Policy in the Context of the UNFCCC Climate Negotiations, May 2011, PPLA/2011/02, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fdf1f4f2.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Susin Park, Climate Change and the Risk of Statelessness: The Situation of Low-lying Island States, 10 May 2011, PPLA/2011/04, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4fdf1e572.html [Part of the Legal and Protection Policy Research Series for the Division of International Protection]
      • Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, IASC Operational Guidelines on the Protection of persons in Situations of Natural Disaster, January 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4ecd1e733be.html
      • UN General Assembly, Protection of persons in the event of disasters: texts and titles of draft articles 6, 7, 8 and 9 / provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee on 6, 7 and 8 July, 14 July 2010, A/CN.4/L.776, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b086a84.html [French]
      • UN General Assembly, Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters: texts of draft articles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 as provisionally adopted by the Drafting Committee, 24 July 2009, A/CN.4/L.758, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b085c14.html [French]
      • Etienne Piguet, Climate change and forced migration, 31 January 2008, ISSN 1020-7473, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c2325630.html [Part of the Policy Development and Evaluation Service's New Issues in Refugee Research Series]
      • Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), Protecting Persons Affected by Natural Disasters. IASC Operational Guidelines on Human Rights and Natural Disasters, June 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a54bbcfd.html [French]

      L. Human Rights

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Human Rights Engagement Strategy: 2020-2023, 26 October 2020, https://www.unhcr.org/5fb681264
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance on UNHCR's engagement with national human rights institutions, 26 October 2020, https://www.unhcr.org/5f92a5604
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance on Racism and Xenophobia, 16 October 2020, https://www.unhcr.org/5f7c860f4
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Expert Meeting on Complementarities between International Refugee Law, International Criminal Law and International Human Rights Law: Summary Conclusions, July 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e1729d52.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Combating Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance through a Strategic Approach, December 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b30931d2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, A/AC.96/1053, 30 June 2008, http://www.refworld.org/docid/486902122.html [French] [See examples of how UNHCR and partners use international human rights and refugee law in complementary ways throughout the text]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Discussion Paper by the Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees on Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance towards Refugees, 28 February 2000, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f339a884.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Note on International Protection, 3 July 1998, A/AC.96/898, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae68d3d24.html [French] [The complementarity of UNHCR's protection work and human rights is a cross-cutting theme in the 1998 Note on International Protection]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR and Human Rights, 6 August 1997, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b332c.html

      Related sources:

      M. Other Operational Guidance

      M.1. Data Protection TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Addendum on Data Sharing to the January 2011 Memorandum of Understanding between the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the World Food Programme (WFP), 17 September 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5bbcac014.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Guidance on the Protection of Personal Data of Persons of Concern to UNHCR, 23 August 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5b360f4d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Policy on the Protection of Personal Data of Persons of Concern to UNHCR, May 2015, http://www.refworld.org/docid/55643c1d4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, An efficient and protective Eurodac – UNHCR comments on the Commission's amended proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of 'EURODAC' for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of Regulation (EU) No [ … / … ] (establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person) and to request comparisons with EURODAC data by Member States' law enforcement authorities and Europol for law enforcement purposes and amending Regulation (EU) No 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice (Recast version), November 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/50ad01b72.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Advisory Opinion on the Rules of Confidentiality Regarding Asylum Information, 31 March 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42b9190e4.html

      M.2. Commenting on National (Asylum) Legislation TOC

      M.3. Involvement with Courts TOC

      Related sources: TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Toolkit on How to Request Interim Measures under Rule 39 of the Rules of the European Court of Human Rights for Persons in Need of International Protection, February 2012, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4f8e8f982.html

      M.4. Relations with International Criminal Tribunals / ICC TOC

      • International Criminal Court (ICC), Negotiated Relationship Agreement between the International Criminal Court and the United Nations, 22 July 2004, ICC-ASP/3/Res.1, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b080fa4.html [French] [Entered into force 4 October 2004]

      M.5. Rule of Law TOC

      M.6. Communications and public information TOC

      M.7. Partnerships and high-level agreements TOC

      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Joint Letter from IOM and UNHCR on the Collaboration Between the two Organizations, 25 January 2019, /docid/5c519a614.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Joint letter from UNHCR and ICRC on Enhancing Cooperation on Internal Displacement, 24 October 2018, http://www.refworld.org/docid/5bd9827a4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Working Arrangement between the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 13 December 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/52aef24c4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the International Detention Coalition and The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 13 June 2013, http://www.refworld.org/docid/51b86f344.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 22 June 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e084a812.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the World Food Programme (WFP), January 2011, http://www.refworld.org/docid/505c71e1141.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Model UNHCR Co-operation Agreement between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Government of Country X, 2009, Rev. MNW 24/10/01, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31b27.html [French]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding Between the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) on "Strategic Partnership", 29 May 2006, http://www.refworld.org/docid/44ca16354.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Strategic Partnership Agreement Between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the European Commission (Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy), 15 February 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42135e6c4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding Between the United Nations Volunteers Programme and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 18 October 2005, http://www.refworld.org/docid/439eee8f4.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Inter-Office Memorandum Between the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 7 April 2004, http://www.refworld.org/docid/416272c64.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding Between the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 17 December 2003, http://www.refworld.org/docid/416274284.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding Between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Association of Refugee Law Judges (IARLJ), 30 August 1999, http://www.refworld.org/docid/42c3fa0b2.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the International Organization for Migration, 15 May 1997, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31a70.html
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Memorandum of Understanding between the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the World Health Organization, 17 March 1997, http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b31b17.html

      N. Miscellaneous

      • Ahmed Abou-El-Wafa, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, The Right to Asylum between Islamic Shari'ah and International Refugee Law: A Comparative Study, June 2009, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a549f9f2.html [Written by Prof. Ahmed Abou-El-Wafa on behalf of UNHCR. Opinions are those of the author but are not necessarily those of UNHCR]
      • UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Note on Issues related to Eligibility for International Protection in the Context of Fumigations, 30 July 2007, http://www.refworld.org/docid/46b6d62f2.html

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